Biblioteek Intranet Nuus
Library Intranet News


Departement Biblioteekdienste 

Universiteit van Pretoria 

          Department of Library Services 

University of Pretoria 

        Oktober 2010 Uitgawe 1 • October 2010 Issue 1  




Ë DLS lends a helping hand to other libraries

Ë    Visit to Stellenbosch:  9 &  10 September 2010

Ë    Visit of a delegation of the Dutch Embassy

Ë    Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment workshop

Ë Ke ke le ke ke , Ke ke le ke ke: The Library's got Fruity feather gees

Ë Loslitdag / Casual Day -  3 September 2010

Ë    Celebrating Heritage Day - 24 September 2010

Ë    In Memorial

Ë    Questions To Ask Before You Hit Send

Ë    e-Boek vir Oktober / e-Book for October

Ë    Oktober boek van die maand / October book of the month

Ë    Birthdays of this month / Verjaardae hierdie maand

Ë    Het jy geweet.... / Did you know .....


DLS lends a helping hand to other libraries


The Universities in SA take responsibility for the Millennium training in our neighbour countries. In 2005 the UP was selected for the training of the University of Namibia (UNAM). Two staff members from DLS went there for 3 days to train all the UNAM library staff on the Millennium Circulation and Systems modules. About 40 people were involved.


In 2008 the UP DLS team was invited to take responsibility for the Millennium training of the University of Venda (UNIVEN). The team consisted of 4 DLS staff members, each training in a different Millennium module. The training was done in 2,5 days and all UNIVEN library staff members attended.


In 2010 UNAM requested the coordinator of Circulation in the DLS to do a follow-up on the previous Millennium Circulation training. In 2 days about 30 staff members were trained on the extensive use of all the Circulation Millennium functions. Attention was also given to their system problems with regards to Millennium.


Contributed by Marietjie van der Westhuizen

Visit to Stellenbosch:  9 &  10 September 2010


Our COP of Institutional Repository Managers were invited to visit Stellenbosch University in September  to share information on the  implementation of DSpace 1.6.2 .


Ansie van der Westhuizen (UNISA) ,  Lazarus Matizirofa (UJ) , Henda van den Berg (NRF)   and myself responded to the invitation  for a study tour,   learning  from  Hilton Gibson,  Ina Smith and PauletteTalliard  on using the functionalities of  DSpace version 1.6.2.


After a warm welcome  by dr Reggie Raju  we were in the hands of Hilton, Paulette and Ina for an  Overview of DSpace 1.6.2 . Paulette and Ina introduced  us to SunScholar and 1.6.2  while Hilton explained all the IT and technical stuff such as :
-  the SWORD protocol that they are using in their workflow
-  the importance of a  digital preservation policy for the upgrading and customization of systems
-  the Statistical Reports  as harvested by Google Analytics,  Google Scholar (Webometrics) 
-  DSpace 1.6.2  Statistics


Being an enthusiastic  Open Access supporter,  all the information is posted  on a wiki.
Concluding our study tour we was met for lunch on Friday  by  ms Ellen Tise.

What did I learn ?

The new functionalities of DSpace 1.6.2 resulted in new  ideas for implementation  in UPSpace, and the importance of  a digital preservation policy for UPSpace .
 A wonderful experience, for networking and  sharing.



On the 14th September  I  discussed  these functionalities at our UPSpace User Group meeting ,  and as a result  we are all waiting for the  arrival of the new server and  Dspace version 1.6.2 .

In the meantime we are busy  “Spring Cleaning “  UPSpace , doing quality control and attending to the backlog, which we hope will be completed  before  migrating  UPSpace  to the new version.

 In conclusion,   courtesy of Lazarus,  slightly  blurred photographs  of our group, due  to the overload of information !



Contributed by  Hettie Groenewald

Visit of a delegation of the Dutch Embassy


A delegation of the Dutch Embassy visited the library on 16 th September 2010.  The purpose of the visit was to discuss funding for a project to catalogue the Dutch Collection which forms part of Special Collections and is housed in the Old Merensky Library.   This collection is only accessible through a card catalogue and index registers which are inadequate for modern retrieval methods.


This was a  first round discussion and further proposals will have to be tabled to determine if the Dutch Embassy  has a program  to match the library’s intent with this collection.  Dr. Peter Thuynsma  and Palesa Medupe  of the Department of Insititutional Advancement  were also present at the meeting.


Thanks to all our colleagues who contributed towards the success of the event :  Magda who arranged for sweet and salt,  Johanna who took the tea trolley all the way to the Old Merensky  (Sello and Patson assisted at the stairs)  and to Mari for her allround support.


Hope that we have good news to report in future.

Contributed by  Katrien Malan

Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment workshop is an international not-for-profit organisation with a base in Europe and a global network of partners. They work with libraries around the world to enable sustainable access to high quality digital information for people in developing and transition countries. Their mission is to enable access to knowledge through libraries in developing and transition countries to contribute to sustainable economic and social development.

The University of Botswana is currently working on an open access policy and requested Iryna Kuchma, the Open Access program manager of for follow up workshop. Elsabé Olivier was invited as one of her speakers on 2 September 2010 at the Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment workshop in Gaborone, Botswana.  Some of the attendees included Prof. I. N. Mazonde, Director Research & Development, Prof. Frank Youngman, Deputy Vice Chancellor (DVC) Academic Affairs (AA) and some other senior administrators, researchers and librarians from the University of Botswana, University of Witwatersrand and Uganda as well as Susan Veldsman who represented ASSAf OA publishing project.


Elsabé presented the following two presentations:

University of Pretoria's electronic theses and dissertations programme (UPeTD)

The University of Pretoria’s Open Scholarship Programme & the first Africa Open Access mandate


Some of the feedback received:


“Thanks for your brilliant and innovative presentation on Open Access program for UP. It was a learning experience for us in the vocational training search. Your presented  UP Open Access scholarly program with passion and enthusiasm. Your presentation skill was excellent, it was full of live examples, and encouragement. You can actually do better in “marketing and publicity’ area. Keep it up” - Master Jacobs Moelenyane, Botswana Training Authority (BOTA)


“Many thanks for your informative input regarding OA and for having responded to my questions. The information that you shared with us was extremely valuable and it would have benefitted our faculty research committees who were unfortunately not represented at that forum. Perhaps a follow-up of sorts will indeed assist.Personally - and from what you had shared with us - OA is a priceless process that will not only help us to become conspicuously ‘visible’ globally but will also – in my view - empower us in a different way and thus open other avenues to network and partner with others in the regional, on the continent and beyond. I hope to keep in touch and look forward to hearing from you. Best regards and all the best with your project.” - Prof. Muhammed Haron, Dept. of Theology & Religious Studies, University of Botswana.


Contributed by Elsabé Olivier

Ke ke le ke ke , Ke ke le ke ke: The Library's got Fruity feather gees


The Library's Springday "gees" was definitely a winner this year! With an original team of 2 (Elsabé Olivier and Janice De Wee) which later expanded to 4 (Christelle Steyn, and Una Mgwenya) the library's 1st ever Springday potjiekos was arranged for the Library staff who attended the day: Lebogang Raphadu, Sindy Hlabangwane, Ivy Khangala, Goodwill Morige, Sello Kgwebane, Josiah Lebelo,  Edwin Maja, Maggie Moropane, Gloria Maripane and Hilda Kriel. Elsabé supplied the curry chicken recipe, and Janice her mother’s magic mix of masala and curry herbs, Christelle was the mastermind behind the decor and Una  assisted with the rest of the arrangements and together they managed to pull off an exceptional fruity chicken curry potjie, with the assistance of Elsabé's husband (the master in potjie-making) which was entered for the Spingday potjiekos competition. The highlight of the day was definitely the visit of prof De La Rey at our table and everyone joined her for the photograph!


Although we did not win the competition we definitely enjoyed the day and learned to work together as a team to make a success of the day. If we had to judge ourselves "according the competition guidelines" we would summarize the day as follows:


Originality of recipe: Fruity Chicken curry potjie with a slight South African curry mix.

Originality of recipe: 100% creative and original.

Potjie theme and décor: Theme: Fruity Feathers. Decor: 2 tables decorated with tablecloths with birds in  Aafrican colours motif, 5 chickens, popcorn kernels, speckled eggs, fruits and mealies with feathers, salted popcorn, caramalized popcorn, stuffed eggs and candles and lamps and lots more...(Thanks to Elsa Coertze for most of the props!)


Atmosphere and ambiance around the potjie (team spirit): Library gees as you've never seen it before. The organizing committee wore white tops and blue pants, combined with feathery aprons, head pieces, feathery earrings and anklets. Elsabé and her husband entertained us with some dancing, Sindy led the Chicken choir and the principal's visit to the stand kindled everyone's spirit. Elsabé entertained the judges with her chicken speech and the rest of the group did the chicken dance.


Creative presentation to judges: A tray with salt and pepper chicken shakers, champagne glass decorated with feathers filled with a lovely red wine, the all important potjiekos in the centre and some speckled eggs and a sweety pie to clean the palette after judging (or dessert).

Culinary taste of potjie: Excellent – according to the library staff!



This is what some of the attending library staff members had to say about the Spring Day 2010:


Una Mgwenya: Well done to all and thank you for your efforts.  I guess sometimes it is not all about winning but coming together as one family just for the joy and the fun tops it all, waar was jy? Thanks, it was worth every minute!


Ivy Khangale: Well done everyone, it was excellent. I liked the fact that the theme was relevant to the decorations and everything, the chickens, feathers, fruits etc, it was wonderful and people who came around the table commented positively. I hope next year other staff members will attend in numbers, because it brings us together as one big family to enjoy and have fun. That was the best way of creating a good-team spirit, just imagine if we attend in numbers and all participate? I think we can do better than this and even win the price. I felt like I would have stayed longer but my Boy was calling…., however next year we will enjoy this day (he will be grown up) because it’s worth it.


Gloria Maripane: I just want to thank you very much for all the efforts and initiative you took to prepare for the wonderful and unforgettable occasion of yesterday - you made us proud. Yes, we did not win but surely we were outstanding. Not forgetting to thank mr Le Roy Olivier for being that super chef to us, it was great. Believe me or not, yes we were few but we had fun. I think it is about time that we start supporting activities that involve us all in the library, surely we could have won only if there was a good turn-up of staff members, other departments of UP  came in big numbers and that's how they managed to win, surely we can. This is part of Team Building and an opportunity to get to know each other better - especially on a social level. I say a big thank you to mr Le Roy Olivier -  the potjiekos was divine. In future we must pull-up our socks and work together as a team "United we stand - divided we fall".


Sindy Hlabangwane: On Wednesday, 8th September 2010 UP organized a "Spring Day" or I can say a mass party for its members in the UP Sports ground. The venue was a chock-a block and the food was plentiful. The sports ground looked like we were at the "Pretoria show". The spring day has been going on for many years at UP, but this year it was of its own kind, instead of braai it was potjiekos. The tables of each Department were decorated with different colours. Each table was decorated according to the theme the department have chosen. Our Library team's name was "Fruity feathers". So you can imagine we had a delicious chicken potjie. We had an experienced decor team (Elsabé, Janice and Christelle) and we were spoiled for the day as Elsabé had organised a "chef" for us. Thanks for you to make us feel at home yesterday. I am grateful for the time we have spent socializing and networking together. I especially appreciate LeRoy for the good work he did for us (potjie cooking). What a team...Again, thanks to you, Janice and Christelle so much for all the good work you did to put our library on the map. Viva “Fruity feathers" for the good spirit! Thanks to the team who participated and who put our department on the map and thanks to the sponsor.


Goodwill Morige: Springday was fun! I was walking around spying on other people’s tables – checking whether their tables were better than ours. Our Fruity Feathers table was very nice – especially the chickens, the mealies and popcorn on the table. I was curious about the other people’s potjiekos – there was only one other chickenpot, but others had oxtail, lamb, fish, pork and homemade baked bread. Our chicken- and vegetable potjie was very good and I enjoyed attending. Wa was jy?


Maggie Moropane Spring day@UP - what a wonderful day: a day to cherish and remember always and a day that forms part of the UP-culture. This day brought UP personnel, staff, students and their families together. To top it all, it was a day where employee and employer relate comradely. Yes, it was a wonderful and inspiring experience to join our principal, Prof de la Ray in the fun walk/run – “BIG THANK YOU Prof for the invite.”  Hope leaders from other departments and units of UP will agree with me when I think this was another successful form of ‘TEAM BUILDING’ efforts. The ‘POTJIE-KOMPETISIE’ jammer nie almal kon deelneem nie! I see this as a way of breaking those culture barriers and a ‘COOL’ way of getting to know and understand our diverse cultures and practices.  Let’s keep it up!


Hopefully next year UP will consider starting the events early to give some of us the chance to celebrate the day to the end. Prof De la Ray, we really looked stunning in the T-shirts. THANK YOU!


Thank you all for a wonderful experience, we had fun, that’s for sure!


Contributed by  Elsabé Olivier

Loslitdag / Casual Day -  3 September 2010


Casual Day is a project of the National Council for Persons with Physical Disabilities in SA (NCPPDSA)


Casual Day is a FUNdraising project benefiting persons with disabilities.; Each year we call upon South Africans to dress differently on the first Friday of September and to wear the Casual Day sticker to show their support for disabled people.

Casual Day is South Africa's foremost fundraising event of this nature and raises more than just money — it raises awareness about persons with disabilities, opportunities for corporate comradeship, community support and welfare organisation participation.


The message in this year's campaign was very clear:     
No Sticker = No Fun!

Dress for laughs on Friday 3 September. Wear your frown upside down and show off your Casual Day sticker. Give everyone a reason to smile, support persons with disabilities and make sure you wear your sticker.


Laat ons lag met jou drag want jou plakker sê jy mag. Dra jou plakker en ondersteun persone met gestremdhede – ondersteun Loslit Dag !


Die biblioteek het ook hulle deel bygedra.  Hieronder is sommige van ons personeel op Loslitdag.



     Dimakatso Malungane and Mmakgoshi Prescilla  Reetseng                                           Sunette Steynberg                                                         Rianie van der Linde



Photo's contributed by Una Mgwenya

Celebrating Heritage Day - 24 September 2010


To celebrate this year's heritage day these two ladies Johannah Shika (of the tea room) and Makhanani Mashaba (of Level 3 Information desk) dressed in traditional clothes.


In the picture Johannah Shika is wearing a modern Sepedi traditional attire.


Makhanani Mashaba is wearing a typical Tsonga traditional attire. The skirt she is wearing is called a "xibelana" normally seen during the women traditional dance worn with "nceka" a cloth that drapes over the skirt and the top is called "yele". Their language is Xitsonga. More can be read from the National Digital Repository URL:




From left to right:  Johannah Shika and Makhanani Mashaba



Written by Una Mgwenya and picture taken by Monica Hammes.

In Memorial


Frans Tshepo Mokoena

19 February 1970  -  V20 September 2010

(Burial:  25 September 2010)


Frans Tshepo Mokoena was born on the 19th February 1970 at Rooikrans Lydenburg, the fifth child of Abram and Rebecca Mokoena. He attended Tshehla Primary School and matriculated at Mashishong High in 1990.  He got married to Velheminah Dikeledi in 1998.


He started his career at the University of Pretoria on the 31st August 1993. His career at the University of Pretoria can be divided into two periods as follows: 31st  August 1993 to 31st March 2005 and 1st May 2006 to 20th September 2010.  In 1994 he registered for the BA-degree in Library Sciences at the University of Pretoria.  He successfully completed this degree and graduated on the 6th of September 2001. 


In June 2003 Frans was promoted to the position of Information Specialist.  As an Information Specialist he rendered excellent services to various academic departments.  While working in the UP Library and the Hatfield campus he worked on a temporary basis at the Mamelodi Library and the Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) Library in Johannesburg. One of Frans high lights during this time was the opportunity to meet President Nelson Mandela during his visit to the University of Pretoria Library Services.


He was a leader of various projects in the Library, and was highly appreciated by is colleagues in the Library and  academic departments.We received many messages of condolences from members of the departments that he served. The following is one of these messages which we received from the Department of Sociology.  “Our department has a long history with Frans from his days as a sociology student until he became our information specialist. We will definitely miss his polite, respectful and quiet manner. Our hearts go out to his wife and children and his family at large in this time of need.”


The personnel of the Department of Library Services respected and appreciated Frans. We will certainly miss him.


 He left behind his wife, five children and one grandchild as well as three brothers and two sisters.


Compiled by Salomie Stolz and Maureen du Pisanie


Questions To Ask Before You Hit Send


For many people, communicating via email is the standard way of communicating within organisations, and also with customers, external contacts and business partners. In business, the formality of email messages tends to vary, between the semi-formal approach that was previously the domain of the inter-office memo, down to chatty exchanges that you might have with someone over the telephone or while standing next to the coffee machine. 

However, email messages are surprisingly permanent. Have a really good look through the contents of your mailbox and you might be surprised to see just how old some of those messages are. Would you have kept a paper inter-office memo for that length of time? Probably not. And the worrying thing is that most people give very little thought to the contents of an email message, even though it might linger around an organisation for several years.



  • Check to see what your organisation's email policy is. Many organisations have rules about the types of message that can be sent and also if your email is monitored or screened.
  • Make sure that the content is relevant to the recipients. Nobody likes to receive junk email.
  • Be polite. Terseness can be misinterpreted.
  • Trim any quoted message down as much as possible.
  • Try to use humour and irony sparingly. You can use smileys such as :) or :( to indicate facial expressions, but make sure that the recipient understands what they mean.
  • Ensure that you have a relevant "Subject" line.
  • Try to quote from the original message where relevant. You can break the quoted message down into paragraphs and comment on them individually to make it clearer.
  • Include a brief signature on your email messages to help the recipient understand who it is from, especially if you are dealing with someone you do not know very well.
  • Be careful when replying to mailing list messages, or to messages sent to many recipients. Are you sure you want to reply to the whole list?
  • Remember to tell people the format of any attachments you send if they're anything other than basic Microsoft Office file type.

  • Don't reply to an email message when angry, as you may regret it later. Once the message has been sent, you will not be able to recover it.
  • Don't type in CAPITALS as this is considered to be SHOUTING. This is one of the rudest things you can do.
  • Don't over-use punctuation such as exclamation marks ("!") as these are meant to be for emphasis. In particular avoid more than one exclamation mark ("!!"), especially if your email is quite formal. Also, over-use of the full-stop (e.g. "....") can make a message difficult to read.
  • Don't send large attachments without checking with the recipient first.
  • Don't send chain letters or "make money fast" messages. There are several hoaxes about to do with viruses - never pass these on without checking with your IT department first.
  • Don't conduct arguments in public, for example on a mailing list.
  • Don't make personal remarks about third parties. Email messages can come back to haunt you.
  • Don't use an over-elaborate signature on your email message. Never, ever, use scanned images in a signature as these tend to be very large.
  • Don't mark things as urgent if they aren't, because then when you really do have an urgent message it may not be treated in the way it deserves.
  • Don't post your email address on web sites and other public parts of the Internet unless you want to be deluged with spam.
  • Source:  OPSA Terrific Tuesday Newsletter 15 June 2010


    Contributed by Diana Gerritsen


    e-Boek vir Oktober / e-Book for October


    2010 is die jaar van elektroniese boeke by UP.

    Met die snel ontwikkelende tegnologie van e-boeklesers soos

    Kindle en iPad saam met ebrary is die biblioteek nou in 'n posisie om meer e-boeke aan te koop en bekend te stel.

    Elke maand sal 'n nuwe e-boek in die nuusbrief en op die webblad aangekondig word.

    Kyk gerus daarna en terugvoer is baie welkom.


    ³³³³ : ³³³³


    2010 is the year of the electronic books at UP. 

    With the rapid technology development of e-book readers like Kindle and IPad, and also new development at Ebrary,

    is the library now in a position to buy and promote more e-books.

    Enjoy this new development - feedback and comments are welcome.




    Quantitative tourism industry analysis : introduction to input-output, social accounting matrix modeling,

    and tourism satellite accounts / Tadayuki Hara.

    Hara, Tadayuki.

    2008 Butterworth Heinemann (US)
    ISBN: 9780750684996
    Hardback xiv, 259 p., 7 p. of plates
    Last Received by Blackwell: 04/17/2009
    USD 89.95
    Low stock



    Contributed by Chrissie Boeyens 


    Oktober boek van die maand / October book of the month

    Waar vye nog soet is : van die werk na die spens en die tafel © 2009 / Emilia le Roux & Francois Smuts


    Doornkraal is die plaas se naam, net duskant De Rust. Dis waar Swepie en Ann le Roux al jare lank boer. Dis waar hule kinders geleer het om van die werf te leef, al sewe van hulle. Alles op Doornkraal se eettafel kom van die plaas af. Die gerookte sonneblomsade, die botter, die ricotta ... Die vis sou pas daar in die plaasdam gebyt het, die kweperlekkers flussies nog vrugte gewees het wat swaargeel in die heining vol vinke gehang het en die room sou daardie oggend nog die separator se hart laat klink-klink-klink- het ...








    Contributed by Katrien Malan

    Library Intranet Newsletter Publication / Publikasie van die Biblioteek Intranet Nuusbrief


    Indien jy enige kommentaar of voorstelle oor die nuusbrief het, epos ons asseblief by - ons hoor graag jou opinie.


    If you have any comments or suggestions about our newsletter, then please mail us on - we are very keen to hear your opinions.


           S Ë S


    To contribute, please e-mail Diana Gerritsen. Contributions can be in Afrikaans or English.


    Om 'n bydrae te maak e-pos asb. vir Diana Gerritsen. Bydraes kan in Afrikaans of Engels wees.







    Events this

    month ...

    Gebeure dié

    maand ...






    Oktober / October




    Mental Health Awareness /

    Breast Cancer Awareness


      Month / Maand




    1 World Vegetarian Day
      International Day for Older Persons
      National Inherited Disorders Day
    2 World Farm Animals Day
      International Day of Non-Violence
    4 World Animal Day
      World Habitat Day
    4-10 World Space Week
    5 World Teacher's Day
    6 Library Exco Meeting
    8 Library Management Forum Meeting
    9 Partnership against AIDS Anniversary
      International English Spelling Day
      World Post Day
    9-13 National Nutrition Week
    10 World Egg Day
      World Mental Health Day
    12 World Arthritis Day
      National Bandana Day
    12-20 World Bone and Joint Week
    13 Library Exco Meeting
      International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction
    14 Exco Monthly Strategic Planning Session
      World Sight Day
    15 Boss's Day
      Global Handwashing Day
      National Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Day
    15-19 National Obesity Week
    16 World Food Day
    17 International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
      World Spine Day
      World Trauma Day

    Library Exco Meeting

      World Statistics Day
      National Down Syndrome Day
      World Osteoporosis Day
    22 e-Steering Committee Meeting
    23 National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Day
    24 United Nations Day
      World Development Information Day
      World Polio Day


    World Pasta Day
    27 Library Exco Meeting




    Birthdays this

    month ...




    Verjaarsdae dié

    maand ...




    1 Lita Ferguson
    3 Antoinette Lourens
    4 Andries Kgwebane
      Martha de Waal
    6 Cathrine Nkabinde
    7 E Grobler
    10 Suzette Gouws
      Junior Baloyi
    12 Elsabé Olivier
    16 Niel de Kock
    17 Ditebogo Mogakane
    22 Anastasia Ntuli
    23 Tobie Singleton
      Bozenna van Dijk
    26 Susan Marsh
    30 Arthur Molefe







    "Books are the quietist and most constant of friends; they are the most accessible and wisest of counsellors, and the most patient of teachers."


      ~ Charles W. Eliot ~

    (1834 - 1926),

    The Happy Life, 1896







    Het jy geweet .......

    Did you know.......


    Google is actually the common name for a number with a million zeros.


    Recipes for placing meat between slices of bread date back to Roman times. However, that was for steak, not minced meat. Thus, the steak burger is older than the hamburger!

    Sausage is one of the oldest forms of processed food, having been mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey in the 9th century BC.

    The tongue is a muscle with glands, sensory cells, and fatty tissue that helps to moisten food with saliva. You cannot taste food unless it is mixed with saliva. For instance, if salt is placed on a dry tongue, the taste buds will not be able to identify it. As soon as saliva is added, the salt dissolves and the taste sensation takes place.

    There are 4 basic tastes. The salt and sweet taste buds are at the tip of the tongue, bitter at the base, and sour along the sides.

    See: Why is it called a hamburger although it contains no ham?
    Recipes for placing meat between slices of bread date back to Roman times. However, that was for steak, not minced meat. Thus, the steak burger is older than the hamburger!

    Sausage is one of the oldest forms of processed food, having been mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey in the 9th century BC.

    The tongue is a muscle with glands, sensory cells, and fatty tissue that helps to moisten food with saliva. You cannot taste food unless it is mixed with saliva. For instance, if salt is placed on a dry tongue, the taste buds will not be able to identify it. As soon as saliva is added, the salt dissolves and the taste sensation takes place.

    There are 4 basic tastes. The salt and sweet taste buds are at the tip of the tongue, bitter at the base, and sour along the sides.

    See: Why is it called a hamburger although it contains no ham?

    The only part of the body that has no blood supply is the cornea in the eye. It takes in oxygen directly from the air.



    For inquiries, comments or contributions to this newsletter, please contact the Editor

    This message and attachments are subject to a disclaimer. Please refer to for full details. / Hierdie boodskap en aanhangsels is aan 'n vrywaringsklousule onderhewig. Volledige besonderhede is by beskikbaar.