BLACKFLY DATABASE
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Anon.2004.
Orange River blackfly control : snippets.
Water wheel, 3:7.
     Reports briefly on the prevalence of blackflies in the middle and lower Orange River Valley 18. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Anon.2001.
Changes in the abundance of invertebrates in the stones-in-current biotope in the middle Orange River over five years : report abstract.
SA waterbulletin, 27:25.
     Summarizes a report on the temporal changes in the abundance of invertebrates at a single site near Upington over five years. Copies of the report are available from the Water Research Commission 14. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Anon.1998.
Agricultural water management : water management.
SA irrigation, 20:19.
     Gives a list of research projects by water-related institutions in South Africa in agricultural water management. Includes four completed projects, twenty six current projects and four new projects 25. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Anon.1998.
Researcher targets Blackfly control : agricultural water : report.
SA waterbulletin, 24:10-11.
     Highlights a Water Research Commission report which presents blackfly control guidelines integrating the various control methods. Illustrates with a photomicrograph. Copies of the report are available free of charge from the Water Research Commission 23. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Anon.1996.
Biological and chemical control of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Orange River, R.W. Palmer : report.
SA waterbulletin, 22:24-27.
     Highlights a WRC report which summarizes the results of a study conducted to develop an effective and environmentally safe programme for the control of blackflies along the Orange River. Copies of the report are available free of charge from the Water Research Commission. Illustrates with photographs 14. Record from search on: diptera simuliidae

Anon.1989.
Blackfly control remedy to be tested : Farming news.
Farmer's weekly, 113:85.
     Reports on a new way to control blackfly to be tested by the Veterinary Research Institute at Onderstepoort 19. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Adeleke, M.A., Mafiana, C.F., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Akinwale, O.P., Olatunde, G.O., Sanfo, S.M., Adjami, A. & Toe, L. 2010.
Molecular characterisation of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) found along the Osun River system, in south-western Nigeria.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 104:679-683.

Adeleke, M.A., Mafiana, C.F., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Olatunde, G.O. & Akinwale, O.P. 2010.
Morphotaxonomic studies on Simulium damnosum Theobald complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) along Osun River, Southwestern Nigeria.
Acta Entomologica Sinica, 53:1319-1324.
     Simulium damnosum sensu lato is a complex made up of many sibling species which differ in their ecology and contribution to onchocerciasis transmission. The present study was carried out to provide information on morphological composition of the biting adults of S. damnosum s. l. along Osun River in a forest zone of Southwestern Nigeria. Adult flies were collected on human baits from 07:00 a. m. to 06:00 p. m. every fortnight at three communities, Osun Eleja, Osun Ogbere and Osun Budepo along Osun River from February 2008 to June 2009. The wing tufts and other taxonomic characters of the flies were observed and classified using standard protocol. The results revealed the sympatric existence of both forest and savanna dwelling flies. The forest flies constituted the predominant species representing 99.18% of the flies caught in the three locations while savanna dwelling flies recorded 0.82% of the total catch. The difference in abundance of the forest and savanna flies was statistically significant ( P<0.05). All the savanna flies encountered had pale wing tufts but there was significant difference in wing tufts colours observed among the forest flies ( P<0.05). Further studies are therefore recommended so as to shed light on the species composition of S. damnosum s. l. in the study area.

Adeleke, M.A., Mafiana, C.F., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Olatunde, G.O., Ekpo, U.F., Akinwale, O.P. & Toe, L. 2010.
Biting behaviour of Simulium damnosum complex and Onchocerca volvulus infection along the Osun River, Southwest Nigeria.
Parasites and Vectors, 3:(7 October 2010)-(7 October 2010).
     Background: Studies on biting behaviours and infectivity status of insect vectors are pre-requisites in understanding the epidemiology of the vector- borne diseases and planning effective control measures. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the transmission index of Simulium damnosum complex species along Osun River, South Western Nigeria. Adult flies were collected on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 hours for two consecutive days from February 2008 to June 2009 at three communities: Osun Eleja, Osun Ogbere and Osun Budepo. The infectivity rate was determined by dissection and Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification (PCR) of 0-150 genes of Onchocerca parasite using the pool screening technique. Results: The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the three sampling points were nulliparous as they accounted for 53.90%, 57.86% and 59.58% of the flies dissected at Osun Budepo, Osun Ogbere and Osun Eleja, respectively. The parous rate was higher during the dry season than the wet season but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05). The biting activity of the parous flies showed two peaks at Osun Budepo and three peaks at Osun Eleja and Osun Ogbere. Of the 1,472 flies dissected and 1,235 flies screened by molecular method, none was infected with Onchocerca parasite at the three sampling points however the annual biting rates at the three communities were higher than 1,000 considered as tolerable value for a person living in an onchocerciasis zone by Word Health Organization. Conclusion: The study has provided the baseline data for further study on onchocerciasis transmission dynamics and the need to intercept man- simuliid vector contact at the study area.

Adeleke, M.A., Olaoye, I.K. & Ayanwale, A.S. 2010.
Socio-economic implications of Simulium damnosum complex infestation in some rural communities in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.
Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 2:109-112.
     Simulium damnosum sensu lato constitutes serious public health hazard and socio-economic problem in many areas of West Africa. The present study was carried out to document the socio-economic implications of black fly infestation in some rural communities of Odeda Local Government. Structured questionnaires were administered to thirty randomly selected people aged 18 years and above in three selected communities. All the respondents agreed that black fly is a problem in their communities and 63 (70%) out of 90 respondents attributed body itching/swelling to black fly bite. Majority of the respondents (60%) lost 14 working days in a year due to illness caused by black fly bites. Those who lost between 7 and 14 days in a year due to black fly bites constituted (37.8%). While in the sick bed, each to 46 (51.1%) respondents had at least one person detailed to stay with them and the majority of them up to $100 in treating the ailment. The results emphasize the need to break man/fly contact considering the fact that most of the affected people are subsistence farmers with low incomes.

Adeleke, M.A., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Mafiana, C.F. & Olatunde, G.O. 2011.
Perception on bioecology of onchocerciasis vectors around Osun River, South-western Nigeria.
Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 3:162-166.
     Human onchocerciasis still remains one of the public health problems in Africa despite the colossal resources committed by International organizations in combating its menace in the affected communities. The burden of the disease is intense mostly around the riverine areas where the Simulium vectors of the disease profusely breed. The proper knowledge of the communities on bioecology of the Simulium vectors is imperative towards planning the effective methods of breaking man-fly contact. As part of longitudinal studies on bioecology of black flies along Osun River, the present study utilized structured questionnaires and focus group discussions to assess the perception of the people on bioecology of black flies in three selected communities around the river. All the respondents at the three communities acknowledged that the blackflies bite in their communities but had poor knowledge of the breeding site of the flies as majority of the respondents at Osun Eleja and Osun Budepo (33 and 58%) claimed that the flies breed in tree-holes as compared with stagnant water and flowing river. Though, most of the respondents knew that black flies transmit disease, only 2, 5 and 11% of the respondents at Osun Budepo, Osun Eleja and Osun Ogbere respectively knew that black flies transmit onchocerciasis. The poor knowledge of the respondents on some aspects of bioecology of the flies poses threat to the effective control of onchocerciasis and black flies nuisance at the study communities. There is therefore need for proper health education in order to stem the risk of man-fly contact at the study area.

Adeleke, M.A., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Olatunde, G.O., Akinwale, O.P., Ekpo, U.F. & Mafiana, C.F. 2011.
Bioecology of Simulium damnosum Theobald complex along Osun River, Southwest Nigeria.
Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health, 10:39-43.
     Objectives: A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the adult population dynamics and the physical and chemical factors affecting the distribution of Simulium damnosum complex, a vector of onchocerciasis (River blindness) along Osun river in a forest zone of southwestern Nigeria. Methods: Adult flies were collected on consented human baits from 7.00 am to 6.00 pm every fortnight at three communities; Osun Eleja, Osun Ogbere and Osun Budepo along Osun River from February 2008 to June 2009. Larval prospection was carried out in all accessible rivers around the study area and their physical-chemical parameters were determined. Results: A total of 1472 flies were caught during the study period with Osun Budepo accounting for the highest number of the flies (47.0%) followed by Osun Eleja (42.2%) and Osun Ogbere (10.8%). The fly abundance was significantly higher ( p<0.05, respectively for the three sites) during the wet season, with a positive correlation between rainfall and fly abundance at the three sites. S. damnosum s.l was found breeding only in the wet season at the rivers with rocky substratum and submerged vegetations. Water velocity (p=0.050) and dissolved oxygen (p=0.042) were the only parameters showing significance with the distribution of S. damnosum s.l larvae at the breeding sites. The adults of S. damnosum s.l were found biting at the rivers hitherto scored negative for preimaginal stages showing that the presence of larvae has limitation as sole factor in determining the extent of the distribution of S. damnosum complex. Conclusions: The results suggest that the climatic and environmental conditions influence the distribution of S. damnosum s.l in the study area. The presence of the fly all year round calls for adequate control measures to curtail the transmission of onchocerciasis in particular during the wet season.

Adeleke, M.A., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Olatunde, G.O., Akinwale, O.P. & Mafiana, C.F. 2012.
Attraction of Simulium damnosum complex to Pterocarpus santalinoides: a preliminary study.
Munis Entomology & Zoology, 7:368-371.
     Insects generally respond to varieties of cues but little is known on the attraction of Simulium damnosum sensu lato to plants: The present study investigates the attraction of Simulium damnosum s.l. to Pterocarpus santalinoides along Osun River in South Western Nigeria. Two consented fly capturers were positioned under Pterocarpus santalinoides and a plant of comparable size at Osun Budepo and Osun Eleja both located along Osun river between October to December, 2008. The number of the flies caught under P. santalinoides was statistically higher than the control at both sites with P. santalinoides accounting for 63.86% and 59-39% of the flies collected at Osun Budepo and Osun Eleja respectively (Osun Budepo, F=218.4, P0.05). The results therefore demonstrate that the identification of the compounds possibly responsible for the attraction could be used to develop lures for the trapping and control of S. damnosum.

Adeleke, M.A., Sam-Wobo, S.O., Akinwale, O.P., Olatunde, G.O. & Mafiana, C.F. 2012.
Biting on human body parts of Simulium vectors and its implication for the manifestation of Onchocerca nodules along Osun River, southwestern Nigeria.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 49:140-142.
     Background: The biting preference of Simulium vectors has been known to influence the distribution of Onchocerca nodules and microfilariae in human body. There is, however, variation in biting pattern of Simulium flies in different geographical locations. This study investigates the biting pattern on human parts by Simulium vectors along Osun river system where Simulium soubrense Beffa form has been implicated as the dominant vector and its possible implication on the distribution of Onchocerca nodules on human body along the river. Methods: Flies were collected by consented fly capturers on exposed human parts namely head/neck region, arms, upper limb and lower limb in Osun Eleja and Osun Budepo along Osun river in the wet season (August-September) and the dry season (November-December) in 2008. The residents of the communities were also screened for palpable Onchocerca nodules. Results: The results showed that number of flies collected below the ankle region was significantly higher than the number collected on other exposed parts (p < 0.05) while the least was collected on head/neck region in both seasons. The lower trunk was the most common site (60%) for nodule location at Osun Eleja followed by upper trunk (40%). Nodules were not found in the head and limb regions. At Osun Budepo, the upper trunk was the most common site of the nodule location (53.8%) followed by the lower trunk (38.5%) and head region (7.7%). Conclusion: Though, most of the flies were caught at the ankle region, the biting of other parts coupled with the presence of nodules at the head and upper trunk regions showed that Simulium vectors could obtain microfilariae from any part of the body, thus increasing the risk of onchocerciasis transmission.

Adler, P.H., Cheke, R.A. & Post, R.J. 2010.
Evolution, epidemiology, and population genetics of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Infection Genetics and Evolution, 10:846-865.
     More than 2000 species of black flies feed on vertebrate blood; 1.5% of all species are vectors of pathogens that cause human diseases. Of nine simuliid-borne animal diseases, only two, mansonellosis and onchocerciasis, afflict humans. Onchocerciasis is a debilitating disease infecting an estimated 40 million people in Africa, Latin America, and Yemen, whereas mansonellosis is a mild disease in the Neotropics. Cytogenetic studies of natural populations of more than 500 species of black flies have revealed that the classic morphospecies of taxonomists is typically a complex of two or more reproductively isolated entities, or sibling (cryptic) species. Most vectors of human pathogens are sibling species, each ecologically unique in traits such as breeding habitats, dispersal capabilities, and degree of vector competence. We review the evolution of black flies, the cytogenetics that have revealed about 260 cytologically distinct entities, the molecular studies that continue to expose additional hidden biodiversity, and a case study of the epidemiology of the Simulium damnosum complex, the largest species complex of blood-feeding arthropods on Earth and the premier group of black flies responsible for human onchocerciasis. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Albers, A., Esum, M.E., Tendongfor, N., Enyong, P., Klarmann, U., Wanji, S., Hoerauf, A. & Pfarr, K. 2012.
Retarded Onchocerca volvulus L1 to L3 larval development in the Simulium damnosum vector after anti-wolbachial treatment of the human host.
Parasites and Vectors, 5:(11 January 2012)-(11 January 2012).
     Background: The human parasite Onchocerca volvulus harbours Wolbachia endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. In this study, the development of Wolbachia-depleted microfilariae (first stage larvae) to infective third stage larvae (L3) in the insect vector Simulium damnosum was analysed. Methods: Infected volunteers in Cameroon were randomly and blindly allocated into doxycycline (200 mg/day for 6 weeks) or placebo treatment groups. After treatment, blackflies were allowed to take a blood meal on the volunteers, captured and dissected for larval counting and DNA extraction for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results: PCR results showed a clear reduction in Wolbachia DNA after doxycycline treatment in microfilariae from human skin biopsies with >50% reduction at one month post-treatment, eventually reaching a reduction of >80%. Larval stages recovered from the insect vector had similar levels of reduction of endosymbiotic bacteria. Larval recoveries were analysed longitudinally after treatment to follow the kinetics of larval development. Beginning at three months post-treatment, significantly fewer L3 were seen in the blackflies that had fed on doxycycline treated volunteers. Concomitant with this, the proportion of second stage larvae (L2) was significantly increased in this group. Conclusions: Doxycycline treatment and the resulting decline of Wolbachia endobacteria from the microfilaria resulted in retarded development of larvae in the insect vector. Thus, anti-wolbachial treatment could have an additive effect for interrupting transmission by reducing the number of L3 that can be transmitted by blackflies.

Babalola, O.E. 2011.
Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects.
Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.), 5:1479-91.
     This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for alternatives to ivermectin. Candidate drugs include moxidectin, a macrofilaricide, doxycycline which targets the Wolbachia endosymbiont, and flubendazole, which shows promise with the newer oral cyclodextrin formulation.

Basanez, M., Churcher, T.S. & Grillet, M. 2009.
Onchocerca-Simulium Interactions and the Population and Evolutionary Biology of Onchocerca volvulus.
Advances in Parasitology, Vol 68: Natural History of Host-Parasite Interactions, 68:263-+.
     Parasite-vector interactions shape the population dynamics of vector-borne infections and contribute to observed epidemiological patterns. Also, parasites and their vectors may co-evolve, giving rise to locally adapted combinations or complexes with the potential to stabilise the infection, Here, we focus on Onchocerca-Simulium interactions with particular reference to the transmission dynamics of human onchocerciasis, A wide range of simuliid species may act as vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, each exerting their own influence over the local epidemiology and the feasibility of controlling/eliminating the infection. Firstly, current understanding of the processes involved in parasite acquisition by, and development within, different Simulium species in West Africa and Latin America will be reviewed. A description of how Onchocerca and Simulium exert reciprocal effects on each other's survival at various stages of the parasite's life cycle within the blackfly, and may have adapted to minimise deleterious effects on fitness and maximise transmission will be given. Second, we describe the interactions in terms of resultant (positive and negative) density-dependent processes that regulate parasite abundance, and discuss their incorporation into mathematical models that provide useful qualitative insight regarding transmission breakpoints. Finally, we examine the interactions' influence upon the evolution of anthelmintic resistance, and conclude that local adaptation of Onchocerca-Simulium complexes will influence the feasibility of eliminating the parasite reservoir in different foci.

Bath, G.F. 2006.
Research into the blackfly problem in South Africa.

Beer, C.J.d. & Green, K.K. 2012.
Survey of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) annoyance levels and abundance along the Vaal and Orange Rivers, South Africa.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 83:unpaginated-unpaginated.
     Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are pests in the livestock and labour-intensive farming systems along the major rivers in South Africa. Since 1995, blackflies have been controlled in the Orange River with the larvicide Bacillus thuringienses var. israelensis ( Bti). During 2006-2007, the views of livestock farmers concerning blackfly annoyance were determined by means of questionnaires. The results of the questionnaires were substantiated by seasonal abundance surveys of the sub-adult stages of blackflies, conducted in 2007 at 13 sites in the Orange River and 11 sites in the Vaal River. More than half (52%) of the 39 participating farmers along the Orange River and 79% of the 52 participating farmers along the Vaal River stated that they experienced severe blackfly problems. The majority of farmers were unaware of the availability of products that could be used to protect their animals against blackfly attacks and were willing to be involved in blackfly research. High numbers of blackfly sub-adult stages found in both rivers supported the high annoyance levels reported by the respondents. Simulium chutteri, Simulium damnosum s.l., Simulium hargreavesi, Simulium adersi and Simulium alcocki were identified at Christiana and Delportshoop on the Vaal River, whilst S. chutteri, S. damnosum s.l., S. adersi, S. alcocki and Simulium gariepense were identified at Marksdrift and Ses Bridge on the Orange River. Despite the extensive control of blackflies, farmers still experience problems and this contention is supported by surveys conducted along the rivers.

Begemann, G.J. 1980.
Laboratory studies on the biology of Simulium nigritarse Coquillett and Simulium adersi Pomeroy (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 47:203-211.
     In laboratory studies in South Africa, the eggs of Simulium adersi Pomeroy and S. nigritarse Coq. took up to 13 days to hatch in water at 25 deg C. The larvae of S. nigritarse required a minimum of 20 days and those of S. adersi a minimum of 17 days to pupate when reared at 20 plus or minus 1 deg C. No difference between the sexes was observed in the time taken by the larvae of either species to complete their development. The duration of the pupal stage of S. nigritarse ranged from 47 h at 25 deg C to 23.7 days at 6 deg C. An ambient temperature of 30 plus or minus 1 deg C was lethal for both the larvae and pupae of S. nigritarse. Eclosion of S. nigritarse reached a peak after sunrise, then the rate declined towards sunset; a mean of 76% of the flies hatched during the day. The time of eclosion was similar in males and females. Pupation of S. nigritarse could take place at a water depth of 2 m, and was common at a depth of 1.1 m. In still water, no negative geotropism could be detected in the behaviour of larvae of S. nigritarse and they were positively phototropic. In agitated water, larvae did not respond to a light gradient ranging from 5 to 110 lux. Fully grown larvae became negatively phototropic before the onset of pupation, which took place in dark fast-flowing water. S. nigritarse could overwinter in the larval and pupal stages.

Belqat, B., Adler, P.H. & Crosskey, R.W. 2011.
Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Morocco.
Zootaxa, 46-58.
     All published records are provided for the 42 species of black flies known from Morocco, together with appropriate literature references and misidentifications where known. New records of S. lundstromi are presented for the Rif.

Bich, A.H. & Inuwa, B. 2010.
Distribution of Simulium species and its infection with Onchocerca volvulus along River Muvur, Mubi, Adamawa State.
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3:91-93.
     A survey of the distribution of Simulium species complex population and its infection rate with Onchocerca volvulus was carried out along River Muvur, Mubi between July and August 2009. Black flies were collected using baits, pooter and hand nets. Out of 310 flies collected, 89 (28.70%) were found to be infected with microfilariae. Detection of the parasites in the vector was attained by dissection of flies under dissecting microscope. The result revealed that the prevalence of microfilariae among insects collected in the months July and August was 23.08% and 21.47% respectively. Statistical analysis using t-test and ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence between the months of collection. They also showed no significant differences in microfilariae load between the three anatomical parts (the head, thorax and abdomen). These investigations showed that Simulium damnosum is wide spread along the River Muvur and a large population of flies is infected with Onchocerca volvulus.

Boakye, D.A., Fokam, E., Ghansah, A., Amakye, J., Wilson, M.D. & Brown, C.A. 2009.
Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae) as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Parasites and Vectors, 2:(24 April 2009)-(24 April 2009).
     Background: The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn) in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae). Methods: Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results: Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments). Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion: Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

BRAVERMAN, Y. & CHIZOV-GINZBURG, A. 1998. Duration of repellency of various synthetic and plant-derived preparations for Culicoides imicola, the vector of African horse sickness virus, in African horse sickness, edited by P.S. Mellor, M. Baylis, C. Hamblin, C.H. Calisher & P.P.C. Mertens. Vienna: Springer: 165-174

Braverman, Y. & Chizov-Ginzburg, A. 1997.
Repellency of synthetic and plant-derived preparations for Culicoides imicola.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 11:355-360.

Busvine, J.R. & Pal, R. 1969.
The impact of insecticide-resistance on control of vectors and vector-borne diseases.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 40:731-744.
     A questionary was sent in recent months to just over 100 health and government authorities throughout the world to seek information in relation to insecticide resistance on (a) control schemes in each territory, the insecticides used and the scale of the control coverage (graded, in km.2 areas, from 10 km.2 to >1000 km2) and (b) insecticide resistance (if developed) together with details of insecticide(s) involved, how valid the evidence for resistance, whether change to different insecticides or major or minor change of dosage of one insecticide occurred, and what evidence there was of an increase in disease owing to insecticide resistance. Nearly 70% of the territories replied, and the information obtained, together with other relevant data from published or unpublished documents of WHO, is collated in this paper. Much is concisely stated. The following notes indicate the main themes and conclusions. Anopheline mosquitoes. In Africa An. gambiae is so irritated by DDT that it leaves houses 'before receiving a lethal dose; there is extensive resistance to BHC and dieldrin and also, more recently, to DDT in West Africa. Malaria eradication in Africa faces formidable obstacles. That An. funestus is less challenging, albeit now that BHC-dieldrin resistance has developed in West Africa, is a minor satisfaction. In North and Central American countries pockets of resistance to either DDT or dieldrin, or both, in An. quadrimaculatus, An. pseudopunctipennis, or An. albimanus are linked with refractory malaria, or sporadic outbreaks variously. In South America, resistance in several species is to dieldrin, with DDT still effective, but there are foci of malaria, some, as in Venezuela, due to vector outdoor resting (An. nuneztovari) and not to insecticide failure. The Eastern Mediterranean region has had recurring malaria recrudescences due to DDT or dieldrin resistance, or double resistance (An. stephensi) in Persian Gulf territories, with this double resistance now evident in An. pharoensis in U.A.R., although not with malarial increment as yet; in the Pakistans, insecticide failure is not held responsible for persisting malaria. Despite instances of resistance either to DDT or dieldrin (or both, for An. sacharovi in Turkey), malaria eradication 'has largely been successful, or proceeds as planned, elsewhere in the Mediterranean basin and contiguous European countries. In the Orient, India reports continuing progress towards malaria eradication, though DDT, and DDT + BHC, resistance (An. stephensi) has happened locally. As in parts of India, An. culicifacies is DDT-resistant in Thailand but, there, other more important vectors are fully susceptible. Susceptibility is normal for the numerous vector species of Malaysia, Taiwan, Papua and New Guinea and Sarawak. In the Philippines, DDT is successful after setbacks due to dieldrin resistance. Culicine mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti in the Americas is not only reinvading Central and South American countries from which it was eradicated in recent times but with strains, as occur, in Caribbean Islands, resistant to DDT and BHC-dieldrin. All this is a serious threat in terms off urban yellow fever. In West Africa, this species is BHC-resistant in most large cities, and to a limited extent DDT-resistant in rural situations. Neither insecticide could be relied on for an emergency control programme, if this were required. With regard to the classic vector of filariasis, Culex pipiens fatigans [Culex quinquefasciatus], this shows a stubborn facility to be uncontrollable by conventional usages against adults of DDT, BHC or dieldrin over most of its wide tropical distribution; anti-larval measures have been carried out. It is less easy than for malaria or viruses to assess the consequences for filariasis; comment on this is meagre. Mansonia in Malaysia are susceptible, but have not been exposed to much insecticide pressure. With regard to Phlebotomus, the 'position is one of no resistance and excellent results against sandfly and oriental sore (and sandfly fever) incidental to residual spraying of dwellings against mosquitoes, but with cessation of antimalarial house-spraying, sandflies and dermal leishmaniasis have returned to urban Iran, and this can be expected also in West Pakistan. This is probably acceptable but outbreaks of kala azar might justify commitment to renewed sandfly control by the treatment of houses. Simulium species in the Americas and Africa have long had larval control applied periodically, sometimes at intervals of 3-4 years, but more often about yearly, and only recently have there been scattered reports (Japan, Canada, Ghana) of resistance to DDT, or lindane, at the larval stage. The extensive flight range oif the adults should promote dilution, by inflow of adults, of any trends to resistance in treated populations. Glossina is not resistant despite extensive regional eliminations in East and West Africa, mainly with dieldrin. Insecticide coverage, by air and ground application, is increasing, however. Housefly data are voluminous albeit not complete in scope. Its resistance to insecticides is almost legendary; herein there are numerous reports from the questionary of resistance to DDT-dieldrin and also to organophosphates for most major areas of the world; presumptively, fly-borne diseases prevail correspondingly with Hungary, India and Canada specifically reporting so. Body louse and typhus control, formerly so successful by DDT dusting, is prejudiced by increasing evidence of DDT resistance, particularly clearly so in parts of South Africa, Chile, Eastern Mediterranean countries, especially U.A.R., and Afghanistan. The head-louse is rather persistent, even in developed countries, in children, despite effective control methods and little or no evidence for its persistence being attributable to resistance. Fleas are reported resistant to DDT, or other chlorinated compounds on occasion, in Israel, India, Taiwan, Puerto Rico and Thailand, and sufficiently so in South Vietnam for flea (and .plague) control work to depend on diazinon dust. Triatomine bugs, vectors of Chagas's disease in the tropical Americas, are controlled by dieldrin or BHC house-sprayings. There is some suspicion of BHC resistance in Brazil and Venezuela. Resistance in this group of vectors of an otherwise difficult disease to prevent and cure would be a most serious problem. Bedbugs, including Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus, have foci of usually DDT + BHC + dieldrin resistance in many parts of the world, although not in north Europe; resistance to organophosphorus compounds has so far occurred only in Israel, and possibly exists in Greece. There is little to suggest that DDT, or more usually BHC, treatments of terrain or indoors against ticks of medical concern has induced resistance. As a general rule, DDT has never been an effective insecticide as first choice against ticks or mites. No resistance is reported of trombiculids to BHC, dieldrin and aldrin as ground applications in Malaysia. Cockroaches have, like houseflies, a considerable versatility in resistance in many parts of world and including incipient resistance to malathion in the U.S.A. Some nuisance mosquitoes, notably exposed for years to insecticides and carefully checked in the U.SA. have developed a rather wide spectrum of resistance, some necessitating resort to the newer organophosphorus compounds. A map depicts the world distribution of severe resistance in vectors classified as anophelines, culicines or other vectors. The impact of the foregoing 'data on disease control, although touched on in the record of facts on resistance, is then reviewed with the following main comments: Anophelines and malaria-a challenge to conclusive success in eradication in Persian Gulf, Mexico and parts of Central America; some new, highly effective insecticide, such as OMS-33, is the only conceivable prospect for malaria eradication in Africa; Aedes aegypti is creating serious anxiety in its varied resistances and reinvasions of countries, notably Central and South America; C. p. fatigans presents a very difficult problem; nuisance mosquitoes-somewhat similar issues; louse-borne typhus and relapsing fever control may need the use of insecticides other than DDT and alternatives are available; plague and fleas-still in adequate control; enteric and ophthalmic diseases and flies call for some basic hygiene to control fly-breeding; and failure of fly control, and also of bedbugs, jeopardizes good relations in anti-malarial or antimosquito work between control personnel and the public. Organophosphorus and carbarnate insecticides seem the hope now against cockroaches; organophosphorus compounds as first reserve for simuliids if DDT begins to fail, as seems possible; no strong indications for change of insecticide for tsetse, ticks, mites or sandfly nor for reduviid bugs though, for the last, suggestions of incipient resistance to BHC and dieldrin (and DDT being ineffective) warrant serious concern about testing alternative insecticides. In general, dependence for vector control on organophosphorus and carbamate compounds increases. Much is imperfectly understood about their effectiveness and proneness to stimulate resistance. Their use should be thoroughly appraised in the laboratory and, particularly, under field conditions. D. S. Bertram.

Car, M. 1984.
Laboratory and field trials with two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products for Simulium (Diptera: Nematocera) control in a small polluted river in South Africa.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 51:141-144.
     The effects of 2 formulations (Teknar and a powder formulation produced by the Ben Gurion University, Israel) of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on larvae of Simulium adersi and S. hargreavesi were investigated in the laboratory and in a river in South Africa that was heavily polluted from a sewage works and contained 77 mg chloride/litre. In the laboratory, both simuliids showed 26, 48, 95 and 100% mortality 6 h after a 10-min application of Teknar in rain water at 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 16 p.p.m., respectively. The powder formulation at 0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 30 p.p.m. resulted in 7, 17, 35 and 100% mortality, respectively. The mortalities in polluted river water in the laboratory were 85% with 16 p.p.m. Teknar and 80% with the powder at 30 p.p.m. In the field, Teknar at 1.6 and the powder at 3 p.p.m. did not cause any larval mortality at flow rates of 3060 and 2040 litres/min, respectively. However, 24 h after application of the powder formulation, the numbers of larvae of S. hargreavesi 20 m below the application point decreased significantly. A further 24 h later, after Teknar had been applied, the numbers of S. adersi decreased and those of Chironomidae increased significantly. There was a significant increase in the numbers of S. hargreavesi 200 m downstream after treatment with Teknar.

Car, M. 1983.
Description of the larva of Simulium (Afrosimulium) gariepense de Meillon, with remarks on the taxonomic position of this species (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 46:331-334.
     The larva of Simulium gariepense de Meillon (from South Africa) is described, and the larvae and pupae of this species are compared with those of S. griseicolle Becker (from South Africa and Egypt).

Car, M. 1983.
The influence of water-level fluctuation on the drift of Simulium chutteri Lewis, 1965 (Diptera, Nematocera) in the Orange River, South Africa.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 50:173-177.
     In July 1982, the invertebrate drift at Marksdrift on the Orange River, South Africa, comprised 98.7% Simulium chutteri Lewis, 0.75% chironomids, 0.3% Ephemeroptera, 0.15% copepods and 0.1% Trichoptera. Simuliid eggs were found in only 6 of 75 samples. A single water-level reduction of 57 cm (54%) resulted in a more than 6-fold increase in the drift of simuliid larvae and a more than 50% decrease of 1st- and 2nd-instar larvae in the drift after the water had returned to its original level. Larvae found lying in pools after the water-level had dropped belonged mainly to the 5th to 7th instars, 70% of them showing signs of starvation after 3 days when the river had risen again. The drift of simuliid head-capsules decreased when the larval drift increased, as fewer simuliid larvae moulted when they had been disturbed. The low drift of eggs and the presence of very few pupae and adults indicated that most of the population of S. chutteri was in the larval stage, and that July was therefore an ideal month to control the simuliid by water-level manipulation. Its main effect was by irritating larger larvae and thus preventing them from resettling.

Car, M. & De Moor, F.C. 1984.
The response of Vaal River drift and benthos to Simulium (Diptera: Nematocera) control using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14).
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 51:155-160.
     A liquid suspension of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 (Teknar, 1500 IU/mg) was tested in the Vaal River near Warrenton, South Africa, as a method of controlling Simulium chutteri Lewis, a severe pest of cattle. In the first trial, application of 1.6 p.p.m. for 10 min from a bridge significantly reduced the numbers of Simulium adersi larvae and snails (Burnupia sp.) on stones in rapids 70 m downstream, 40 h later, but no changes were noted 1 km downstream. In the second, application of 2.3 p.p.m. for 7 min just upstream from rapids increased the drift of simuliid larvae 64-fold by 43 min after treatment and significantly reduced populations of S. adersi, S. chutteri, S. hargreavesi, S. mcmahoni and S. damnosum (s.l.) by 18 h after treatment. Small simuliid larvae recolonized the treated area by 72 h after treatment. Numbers of tanytarsine larvae (Chironomidae) and Burnupia sp. were significantly reduced but other non-target organisms (Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Acarina, Gastropoda, platyhelminthes) either did not change or increased significantly. J.E. Hudson

Cheke, R.A. 2012.
The thermal constant of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum s.l. in West Africa.
Medical and veterinary entomology, 26:236-238.
     The minimum water temperature for development (t0) and the thermal constant (K) for the development of immature stages of Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in West Africa were estimated as 20.1 degrees C and 93 day-degrees, respectively, based on analyses of published data on development rates of eggs, larvae and pupae at different water temperatures (24.0 degrees C and 31.5 degrees C). Thus, at a constant water temperature of 30.0 degrees C (approximately 10 degrees C above t0), adult flies would emerge about 9 days after oviposition. Analysis of a dataset probably restricted to S. damnosum s.s., but for which the temperature for the egg stage varied, revealed a much lower t0 (16.3 degrees C) and a much higher K (181 day-degrees), suggesting that the insects' thermal relations may be cytoform-specific. The results will aid control decisions and predictions of possible effects of climate change on sizes and geographic distributions of populations of onchocerciasis vectors in West Africa.

Cheke, R.A., Meyer, R.R.F., Barro, T., Mas, J., Sima, A.N., Abaga, S.E., Noma, M., Seketeli, A.V. & Wilson, M.D. 2009.
Towards the elimination of the Bioko form of Simulium yahense from Bioko: planning and insecticide trials.
Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 19:132-141.
     Onchocerciasis on Bioko island is transmitted by the endemic Bioko form of Simulium yahense. After collection of baseline data on the fly's breeding sites, its insecticide susceptibility and infection rates with Onchocerca volvulus, a ground-based insecticide trial was planned and executed in the northern two-thirds of the island. The first round of five consecutive weekly treatments was conducted during the week beginning 12 February 2001, using knapsack sprayers to dispense 21 litres of a 20% EC formulation of temephos (Abate) at a dose of 0.065 ppm at 92 locations in 30 rivers with discharges >0.05 m 3s -1. The treatments were mostly successful, but failures on three rivers were attributable to the inaccessibility of sites upstream of the highest accessible treatment points. The results showed that an aerial campaign could eliminate the vector from the island and this optimism was vindicated by the success of a subsequent helicopter-based campaign completed in 2005.

Cheke, R.A. & Garms, R. 2013.
Indices of onchocerciasis transmission by different members of the Simulium damnosum complex conflict with the paradigm of forest and savanna parasite strains.
Acta Tropica, 125:43-52.
     Onchocerciasis in savanna zones is generally more severe than in the forest and pathologies also differ geographically, differences often ascribed to the existence of two or more strains and incompatibilities between vectors and strains. However, flies in the forest transmit more infective larvae than their savanna counterparts, even in sympatry, contradicting expectations based on the forest and savanna strains paradigm. We analysed data on the numbers of Onchocerca volvulus larvae of different stages found in 10 different taxonomic categories of the Simulium damnosum complex derived from more than 48,800 dissections of flies from Sierra Leone in the west of Africa to Uganda in the east. The samples were collected before widespread ivermectin distribution and thus provide a baseline for evaluating control measures. Savanna species contained fewer larvae per infected or per infective fly than the forest species, even when biting and parous rates were accounted for. The highest transmission indices were found in the forest-dwelling Pra form of Simulium sanctipauli (616 L3/1000 parous flies) and the lowest in the savanna-inhabiting species S. damnosum/S. sirbanum (135) and S. kilibanum (65). Frequency distributions of numbers of L1-2 and L3 larvae found in parous S. damnosum/S. sirbanum, S. klibanum, S. squamosum, S. yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. leonense and S. soubrense all conformed to the negative binomial distribution, with the mainly savanna-dwelling species (S. damnosum/S. sirbanum) having less overdispersed distributions than the mainly forest-dwelling species. These infection patterns were maintained even when forest and savanna forms were sympatric and biting the same human population. Furthermore, for the first time, levels of blindness were positively correlated with infection intensities of the forest vector S. yahense, consistent with relations previously reported for savanna zones. Another novel result was that conversion rates of L1-2 larvae to L3s were equivalent for both forest and savanna vectors. We suggest that either a multiplicity of factors are contributing to the observed disease patterns or that many parasite strains exist within a continuum. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chutter, F.M. 1972.
Notes on the biology of South African Simuliidae, particularly Simulium (Eusimulium) nigritarse Coquillet.
Newsletter, Limnological Society of Southern Africa, 10-18.
     From studies of Simuliids made in the Fish River north of Grahamstown and in the Bloukrans River south-east of Grahamstown in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa between September 1970 and the beginning of January 1971, accounts are given of the oviposition sites of Simulium nigritarsis Coq., the number of eggs laid, the dispersion of newly hatched larvae and the duration of the developmental stages. Cannibalism under laboratory conditions is also described, and it is tentatively concluded from the field study that cannibalism takes place under natural conditions and greatly influences the size of the population. The recolonisation of the intermittently flowing Fish River by Simuliids is described.

Chutter, F.M. 1968.
On the ecology of the fauna of stones in the current in a South African river supporting a very large Simulium (Diptera) population.
Journal of Applied Ecology, 3:531-561.
     The following is based largely on the author's summary of this account of a study of the fauna of stones in the Vaal River in the north-east of Cape Province, South Africa, where there is a very large population of Simulium chutteri Lewis. Females of S. chutteri feed freely on the blood of cattle and horses and also attack man, and the study was designed to provide background data on which to assess the effects of future control measures against Simuliids. Large numbers of larvae of S. chutteri were found on some, but not all, the biotopes formed by the stones in the current of the river not far below the Vaal Hartz Diversion Weir, where water is diverted to a large irrigation area. The sizes of populations of these larvae and of the other invertebrates occupying the stones were assessed at several sampling stations. An unusual sampling method, involving the collection of the fauna of individual stones, was used. The important variables in the aquatic environment were measured. Stone size, current speed and temperature varied little between the biotopes sampled and could not be shown to account for the differences in fauna from station to station. The largest populations of larvae of S. chutteri were found in a semipermanent biotope and in a biotope where the fluctuation in water level was greater than elsewhere. At these two places, numbers of larvae of Hydropsychids and of other species of Simulium were low. Conversely, permanent biotopes in places where there was little fluctuation in water level had larger populations of Hydropsychids and of other species of Simulium, and few of S. chutteri. From this, it was concluded that larvae of S. chutteri readily move about in the river and rapidly invade newly covered parts of the river bed, whereas their main predators, the Hydropsychid larvae, and their main competitors, the other Simuliids and the very young Hydropsychids, are less mobile. There were several reasons for the occurrence of the large population of S. chutteri not far below the weir but not elsewhere. In this part of the river, there were many places where the rate of flow was suitable for Simulium larvae. It seemed likely that microplankton, which would provide food for the larvae, built up in the large body of still water held back by the weir. The flow characteristics of the river were artificial in two respects that evidently favoured S. chutteri. Water was not diverted for irrigation at week-ends, so that there was a sharp weekly change of flow, and consequently of water levels, in the biotope formed by the stones in the current. There was also an artificial and gradual increase in the flow of the river at the end of winter and in spring as water was released from storage reservoirs. The river then spread gradually into previously dry parts of its bed. Fewer pupae of 5. chutteri were present when there were many larvae parasitized by Mermithids, suggesting that the nematodes prevented successful pupation. The principal invertebrate predators of Simulium larvae other than the Hydropsychids, were probably a leech and a Plecopteran nymph. Dense growths of diatoms and algae may have reduced the area of the river bed suitable for Simuliids in the late spring. Hydroptilids of the genus Catoxyethira and Chironomini were found mainly on stones with permanent tufts of algae. Two mayflies and an Ostracod inhabited cavities beneath stones.

Coetzee, M. 1993.
Entomologist extraordinary: a festschrift in honour of Botha de Meillon.
114.
     This festschrift for the South African medical entomologist Botha de Meillon contains 12 scientific contributions (introduced by H.E. Paterson) on various biting/zoophilic insects (ophthalmotropic Lepidoptera, Culicidae, Simuliidae, Phlebotominae, Ceratopogonidae and Siphonaptera) and 5 personal recollections (by J.H.S. Gear, K.L. Knight, Tin Maung Maung, G. van Eeden). This book ends with a curriculum vitae of Botha de Meillon and a list of his publications.

Colonial Office. 1948.
Colonial Research 1947-48. Reports of the Colonial Research Committee, Colonial Products Research Council, Colonial Social Science Research Council, Colonial Medical Research Committee, Committee for Colonial Agricultural, Animal Health and Forestry Research, Colonial Insecticides Committee, Colonial Economic Research Committee.
119.

Conningarth Economists. 2005.
Cost-benefit analysis of controlling pest blackflies along the middle and lower Orange river.
Draft Report 2:

Coscarón, S. & Coscarón-Arias, C.L. 2002.
Araucnephia iberaensis n. sp., a Neotropical black fly with a peculiar distribution (Diptera-Simuliidae).
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 97:81-87.
     Araucnephia is a Neotropical black fly genus in which only one species from Central Chile is known. Another species has now been found in Corrientes province on the eastern side of the Iberá tropical swamps of Argentina, on the western border of the mountainous region of southern Brazil. This new species, A. iberaensis sp. nov., is herein described and illustrated and information on its bionomics is recorded. It is an interesting species because prior to its discovery no black fly genus or subgenus from Central Chile region has been found in tropical areas, because these two regions are separated by the Monte and Pampas realms. Similarly, no Brazilian genus or subgenus has crossed the Andes mountains to Chile. A comparison with other Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian (Afrotropical) and Australian Prosimuliini (sensu Crosskey & Howard) showed Araucnephia to be a valid taxon most closely related to Araucnephioides (sympatric in Chile). Araucnephia also shows great affinities with Lutzsimulium from Southeast Brazil and Argentina and Paracnephia from South Africa.

Craig, D.A. & Mary-Sasal, N. 2013.
A detailed description of Simulium (Meilloniellum) adersi (Pomeroy) from Mayotte, Comoro islands, with comments on bionomics and biogeography (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Zootaxa, 3641:129-148.
     All stages of Simulium (Meilloniellum) adersi (Pomeroy) from Mayotte, Comoro archipelago are described in detail. This species is widespread on the African mainland and in Madagascar; morphological divergences from African material point towards the Mayotte entity being a separate, but closely related species. Biology of the species overall is reviewed and brief comments are made regarding habitats and biogeography of the Mayotte material.

Crainey, J.L., Wilson, M.D. & Post, R.J. 2009.
An 18S ribosomal DNA barcode for the study of Isomermis lairdi, a parasite of the blackfly Simulium damnosum s.l.
Medical and veterinary entomology, 23:238-244.
     The mermithid parasite, Isomermis lairdi Mondet, Poinar & Bernadou (Nematoda: Mermithidae), is known to have a major impact on populations of Simulium damnosum s.l. Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) and on their efficiency as vectors of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Filarioidea). However, the value of I. lairdi and other mermithid parasites as potential means of integrated vector control has not been fully realized. This is partly because traditional taxonomic approaches have been insufficient for describing and analysing important aspects of their biology and host range. In total, rDNA barcode sequences have been obtained from over 70 I. lairdi mermithids found parasitizing S. damnosum s.l. larvae in three different rivers. No two sequences were found to vary by more than 0.5%, and cytospecies identification of mermithid hosts revealed that I. lairdi with identical rDNA barcodes can parasitize multiple cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex, including S. squamosum (Enderlein). Phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence from the 18S ribosomal DNA barcode, grouped I. lairdi in a monophyletic group with Gastromermis viridis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and Isomermis wisconsinensis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

Crosskey, R.W. 2012.
Notes on simuliids in the Comoro Islands with particular reference to Anjouan.
British Simuliid Group Bulletin, 4-7.

CROSSKEY, R.W. 1993. Botha de Meillon's contribution to the taxonomy of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae), in Entomologist extraordinary: a festschrift in honour of Botha de Meillon. edited by Anonymous Johannesburg: South African Institute for Medical Research: 14-17

Crosskey, R.W. & Davies, J.B. 2010.
Notes and new records for simuliids in Mauritius.
British Simuliid Group Bulletin, 17-20.
     This article reports on the detection of 3 species of blackflies in 3 different aquatic areas in Mauritius in April 1991. While Simulium ruficorne has been commonly identified in the country, the other 2 blackfly species S. adersi and S. triplex were considered new records. A brief discussion on the history of simuliid collection in Mauritius is presented.

Crosskey, R.W., Davies, J.E. & Gatehouse, A.G. 2010.
On simuliidae from the Okavango Delta of Botswana.
British Simuliid Group Bulletin, 3-13.
     This article reports on the collection and identification of 4 blackfly species (namely, Simulium albivirgulatum, S. adersi, S. awashense and S. evillense) in the Okavango Delta (Ngamiland) of Botswana in 1979. A description of the sampling sites and the morphology of blackfly specimens is provided, including some notes on the Okavango Delta as a simuliid habitat.

Davies, J.B. 1999.
Anthropophily and autogeny in S. damnosum in South Africa.
British Simuliid Group Bulletin, 16.
     The question of anthropophilic Simulium damnosum extending further south than Malawi to the Orange and Vaal Rivers and the vicinity of Johannesburg as reported by R. Palmer and F. de Moor [African Entomology (1998) 6, 223-251] is addressed. Further verification is requested.

De Beer, C.J. 2009. Assessment of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) problem status and potential biological control agents along the Vaal and Orange Rivers in South Africa. MSc (Veterinary Science) thesis, University of Pretoria.

de Beer, C.J. & Green, K.K. 2012.
Survey of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) annoyance levels and abundance along the Vaal and Orange Rivers, South Africa.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association-Tydskrif Van Die Suid-Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging, 83:5.
     Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are pests in the livestock and labour-intensive farming systems along the major rivers in South Africa. Since 1995, blackflies have been controlled in the Orange River with the larvicide Bacillus thuringienses var. israelensis (Bti). During 2006-2007, the views of livestock farmers concerning blackfly annoyance were determined by means of questionnaires. The results of the questionnaires were substantiated by seasonal abundance surveys of the sub-adult stages of blackflies, conducted in 2007 at 13 sites in the Orange River and 11 sites in the Vaal River. More than half (52%) of the 39 participating farmers along the Orange River and 79% of the 52 participating farmers along the Vaal River stated that they experienced severe blackfly problems. The majority of farmers were unaware of the availability of products that could be used to protect their animals against blackfly attacks and were willing to be involved in blackfly research. High numbers of blackfly sub-adult stages found in both rivers supported the high annoyance levels reported by the respondents. Simulium chutteri, Simulium damnosum s.l., Simulium hargreavesi, Simulium adersi and Simulium alcocki were identified at Christiana and Delportshoop on the Vaal River, whilst S. chutteri, S. damnosum s.l., S. adersi, S. alcocki and Simulium gariepense were identified at Marksdrift and Ses Bridge on the Orange River. Despite the extensive control of blackflies, farmers still experience problems and this contention is supported by surveys conducted along the rivers.

De Meillon, B. 1935.
Entomological Studies. Studies on Insects of Medical Importance in South Africa-Part II.
Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 6:323-365.
     The first portion of this paper is concerned with Simuliidae. There follows, after records of mosquitoes found in the Cape Province, an account of experiments with Anopheles funestus, an " essentially anthropophilic " species. When a native in an infested area was made to pass the night in an open-ended, mosquito-proof tent, through which a gentle breeze was caused to blow, 60 A. funestus were caught on the gauze protecting the leeward end, but none on that covering the other, showing that the insects found the host by smell. Two further series of similar experiments, each lasting eight days, during which the native was receiving doses of sulphur with the object of disguising his odour, showed that " the ingestión of sulphur, some of which is excreted through the skin, and so presumably disguises the body odour of the host, " reduced the number of A. funestus which visited the tent in order to feed. When the host, after being carefully deodorized; was sprayed with capryllic alcohol, " apparently an essential feature of goat odour, " before being placed in the experimental tent, A. funestus ignored his presence for three successive nights; and the simple deodorizing of the host with odourless soap and water, followed by the application of weak hypochlorite solution, proved nearly as effective, the total bag of A. funestus on three successive nights being in this case 11 in the experimental as compared with 69 in the control tent. The author's conclusion is that immunity from mosquito bites may possibly be secured either by the application of " some odourless substance " (thus avoiding the use of strong-smelling and to some people objectionable citronélla), or by ingestión of something "which, when excreted through the skin, will neutralize the body odours without giving the body an additional smell." In a brief concluding section anatomical and bionomical reasons are given for thinking that A. funestus subsp. leesoni is really a distinct species, which on the other hand, as shown by certain adult and larval characters, is also distinct from the Oriental A.fluviatilis. E. E. A..

De Meillon, B. 1950.
New South African Simuliidae (Diptera).
Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London Series B Taxonomy, 19:14-17.
     The males, females, cocoons and pupae of three new species of Simulium are described; S. merops from Cape Province, S. natalensis and S. narcaens from Natal. [Larvae are not mentioned.] H, S. Leeson.

De Meillon, B. 1937.
Simuliidae. 1. New Species from South Africa.
Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 393-402.

De Meillon, B. 1936.
South African Simuliidae. Part III. New and unrecorded Species.
Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 208-215.
     In this continued paper [cf. R.A.E., B 23 230], descriptions are given of the adults of both sexes and pupae of Simulium tisiphone, sp. n., and S. pseudomeditsaeformis sp. n., and of the male and pupa of S. impukane sp. n., all from Zululand. S. alcocki Pom., is also recorded from Zululand. S. pseudomedusaeformis was erroneously recorded in the preceding part of this paper [loc. cit.] as S. medusaeformis Pom. ; the specimens concerned came from the Cape and the Transvaal.

De Meillon, B. 1935.
South African Simuliidae. Part II.
Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 323-352.
     In this continued paper [cf. R.A.E., B 22 211] descriptions are given of the adults of both sexes and the pupae of Simulium magoebae, sp. n., S. letabum, sp. n., and S. lepidum, sp. n., from the Transvaal, and of the male, the female terminalia and the pupa of S. bovis, De M., which was originally described from the female only [18 239]. In addition to the above mentioned species, the following have been taken in South Africa: S. damnosum, Theo., S. adersi, Pom., S. debegene, De M., S. gilvipes, Pom., S. medusaeformis, Pom., S. nigritarsis, Coq., S. cervicornutum, Pom., and S. beckeri, Roub., of which S. divergens, Pom. [10 106] and S. diversipes, Edw., are considered to be synonyms. Brief notes are given on their distribution and habitats.

De Meillon, B. 1934.
South African Simuliidae. Part I.
Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 253-263.
     Descriptions are given of the male, female and pupa of Simulium debegene sp. n., from the Transvaal, and of the pupa and male hypopygium of S. nigritarsis Coq., from Cape Province.

De Meillon, B. 1930.
On the Ethiopian Simuliidae.
Bulletin of entomological research, 21:185-200.
     In order to facilitate the determination in the field of the various species of Simuliids belonging to the Ethiopian Region, a key is given to the females, and figures of the male genitalia and pupal filaments are reproduced. These filaments may also be dissected from the mature larvae for identification. The larvae and pupae of all species known so far are found only in running water and die in ordinary breeding receptacles in the laboratory. The following new species are described: Simulium bovis from cattle in Zululand and Nyasaland; S. blacklocki (described by F. W. Edwards) from Sierra Leone; and S. woodi and S. nyasalandiciim from Nyasaland. S. nigritarsis, Coq., of which the female is re-described and the male described for the first time, is recorded from Nyasaland and South Africa. S. neavei, Roub., is suspected of being the carrier of a disease among natives in Kenya [R.A.E., B, x, 16] and also occurs in Uganda. S. griseicolle, Becker, which is recorded from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Northern Nigeria and Sierra Leone, bites from sunrise to sunset and attacks any part of man or beast unprotected by clothes or hair. It occurs from January to April, but is not aggressive on cold days and is destroyed in large numbers and finally controlled by hot weather. It is not found more than half a mile from rivers. S. wellmanni, Roub., which is recorded from Angola, South Africa and the Belgian Congo, bites viciously, leaving large weals that irritate for several days. S. damnosum, Theo., which occurs over almost the whole Ethiopian Region, is particularly troublesome in Uganda [xiii, 167] and has been shown to be the vector of Onchocerca volvulus in Sierra Leone [xiv, 62, 167].

De Moor, F.C. 1999.
Phoretic association of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) with heptageniid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) in South Africa.
African Entomology, 7:154-156.
     Phoretic associations between simuliid larvae and other aquatic invertebrates and their significance and possible origins are discussed. The first record of phoresis between simuliids and a Compsoneura sp. is described from collections made in 1991-92 in South Africa. One mature Compsoneura sp. nymph supported a Simulium lumbwanum penultimate-instar larva. The African Compsoneura spp. are compared. The morphology of the S. lumbwanum-Compsoneura association is described, and the possible adaptiveness of the association is discussed in relation to the habitats in which S. lumbwanum and Compsoneura sp. were recorded. Records of S. lumbwanum in South Africa are summarized.

De Moor, F.C. 1994.
River flow regulation : cause of and method for the control of pest blackfly outbreaks.
The naturalist, 38:17-24.
     Description of the life cycle and habitat of Simulium chutteri, a bloodsucking blackfly that attacks sheep and cattle. River flow regulation to ensure an all year round flow of water favours blackfly propagation. Stopping river flow in winter for 60-70 hours at weekly intervals will control blackfly populations 8. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

De Moor, F.C. 1992.
The natural history of blackflies, by R.W. Crosskey : book review.
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 55:167-171.
     This book synthesizes all aspects impinging on the life history of all life cycle stages of members of Simuliidae, and gives an extensive review of the literature citing 1 237 references dating from 1746 to 1989. The book has been written to bridge the gaps between specialists and allow an interchange of information, thus providing each specialist, concentrating on a particular sub-discipline, with a source of information on blackflies. The information content of the book is outstanding and anyone working on blackflies is bound to discover something new in this book 37. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

De Moor, F.C. 1992.
Parasites, generalist and specialist predators and their role in limiting the population size of blackflies and in particular Simulium chutteri Lewis Diptera: Simuliidae) in and along the Vaal River, South Africa.
Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums: natural history, 18:271-291.
     Mermithid and microsporidial parasites found in simuliid larvae were monitored at weekly intervals during one year of a three and a half year study on the biology and ecology of Simuliidae in the Vaal River near Warrenton. Predators and their feeding behaviour on all life cycle stages of Simuliidae were recorded over the entire three and a half year period in and along the river. Several species of vertebrates and invertebrates were recorded as simuliid predators for the first time 36. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

De Moor, F.C. 1991.
Description of ovipositing behaviour in the torrenticolous Simulium (Anasolen) dentulosum Roubaud, 1915 (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Aquatic Insects, 13:201-208.
     The hitherto undescribed ovipositing behaviour and eggs of S. dentulosum are described. The laying of eggs under a thin film of water on the vertical face of a weir wall (in a tributary of the Tyume River in the Hogsback mountain range, eastern Cape Province, South Africa) represents a specialized form of ovipositing which ensures that the larvae are placed in their favoured habitat. It also confirms that this species is entirely adapted to developing in torrenticolous waters. The eggs swell by 51% of their original volume during development and are considered vulnerable to desiccation. The reduced size of adult female mouthparts suggests that the population of this species is autogenous.

De Moor, F.C. 1982.
Determination of the number of instars and size variation in the larvae and pupae of Simulium chutteri Lewis 1965 (Diptera: Simuliidae) and some possible bionomical implications.
Canadian journal of zoology, 60:1374-1382.
     Morphometric studies in the laboratory in South Africa showed that there were 7 larval instars in Simulium chutteri Lewis. A guide for separating the instars is given. Seasonal and sexual size-variation and seasonal variation in biomass in larvae and pupae were statistically analysed and are discussed. Water temperature was a major factor in determining larval and pupal size variation and the duration of the pupal stage. Growth followed a geometric pattern and was in agreement with previous studies on other species. An overlap of larger and smaller larvae at the same developmental stage resulted from the coexistence of early winter and late summer generations, respectively. Larger larvae and pupae could result in autogenous and more fecund adult females. This was important in the population dynamics of this pest species, and could lead to sudden unexpected population explosions. It is suggested that population explosions could be controlled by sharply reducing the population of large individuals in the spring.

De Moor, F.C. & Car, M. 1986.
A field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a biological control agent for Simulium chutteri (Diptera: Nematocera) in the middle Orange River.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 53:43-50.
     Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with a toxicity of 1500 AAU/mg (Aedes aegypti units per mg) was tested at 1.6 p.p.m./10 min against larvae of Simulium chutteri in the Orange River near Prieska, South Africa. Faunal drift increased slightly after the arrival of the microbial pesticide at stations 1.4 and 6 km downstream of the application site. Large numerical decreases in benthic simuliid numbers after treatment were not statistically significant, but the quantity of dead larvae on stones collected from rapids after treatment, and the numerical decreases found by comparing median values of larval counts on stones, indicated that the pathogen killed simuliid larvae. Three days after treatment, recruitment of small larvae on stones 1.4 km downstream of the application site was again discernible. Tanytarsini were also reduced in numbers by treatment. At a flow rate of 38 m³/s, the pesticide was visibly effective in killing larvae of S. chutteri 6 km downstream of the application site, and statistically significant decreases in numbers of larvae were seen at a site 11 km downstream of the application site.

De Villiers, P.C. 1987.
Simulium dermatitis in man - clinical and biological features in South Africa. A case report.
South African Medical Journal, 71:523-525.
     Dermatitis caused by a reaction to the bites of Simulium in a 30-year-old man is described; the lesions were present mainly on the lower legs as palpable purpura, which persisted for 2 weeks with marked oedema and considerable discomfort. This is the first description of blackfly bites in man in the South African literature. The culprit most likely belonged to a member of the S. damnosum complex, or was possibly S. adersi, S. nigritarse or S. hargreavesi; S. chutteri was a less likely candidate.

De Wet, J.A.L. 2001.
Visual evaluation of a few miscellaneous (South African) sheep and goat diseases.

Diawara, L., Traore, M.O., Badji, A., Bissan, Y., Doumbia, K., Goita, S.F., Konate, L., Mounkoro, K., Sarr, M.D., Seck, A.F., Toe, L., Touree, S. & Remme, J.H.F. 2009.
Feasibility of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: First Evidence from Studies in Mali and Senegal.
Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3:e497.
     Background: Mass treatment with ivermectin is a proven strategy for controlling onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it is not known if it can also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission and test whether ivermectin treatment could be safely stopped in the study areas. Methodology/Principal Findings: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 126 villages, and 17,801 people were examined. The prevalence of microfilaridermia was <1% in all three foci. A total of 157,500 blackflies were collected and analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larvae using a specific DNA probe, and vector infectivity rates were all below 0.5 infective flies per 1,000 flies. Except for a subsection of one focus, all infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Treatment was therefore stopped in test areas of 5 to 8 villages in each focus. Evaluations 16 to 22 months after the last treatment in the test areas involved examination of 2,283 people using the skin snip method and a DEC patch test, and analysis of 123,000 black flies. No infected persons and no infected blackflies were detected in the test areas, and vector infectivity rates in other catching points were <0.2 infective flies per 1,000. Conclusion/Significance: This study has provided the first empirical evidence that elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin treatment is feasible in some endemic foci in Africa. Although further studies are needed to determine to what extent these findings can be extrapolated to other endemic areas in Africa, the principle of elimination has been established. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control has adopted an additional objective to assess progress towards elimination endpoints in all onchocerciasis control projects and to guide countries on cessation of treatment where feasible.

Disney, R.H.L. 1975.
Drosophila gibbinsi larvae also eat Simulium.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 69:365-366.
     Dissections were made of two aquatic larvae of Drosophila gibbinsi Aubertin, which is known from Uganda and South Africa and which is closely related to two species of Drosophila known to feed mainly on Simulium larvae in Cameroon [cf. RAE/B 63, 1586]. Both larvae were about 5 mm long and were from the collection of the British Museum (Natural History). The first contained Simulium eggs, 45 late embryos or first-instar larvae of Simulium, 2 Chironomid larvae or embryos and a Cyclorrhaphan larvae (probably of D. gibbinsi), which itself contained 2 head capsules of pre-eclosion Simulium larvae. The second larva contained an egg that probably was from a Chironomid, 9 late embryos or first-instar larvae of Simulium and one first-instar larva or late embryo of a Chironomid. More than 90% of the items from the two larvae were from Simulium.

Ebido, C., Okeke, O.C. & Ubachukwu, P.O. 2011.
Studies on the morphometric characteristics of the Simulium damnosum complex in Uzo-Uwani, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Animal Research International, 8:1337-1344.
     Studies on the morphometric characteristics of the Simulium vectors of onchocerciasis were carried out in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area (LGA), Enugu State, Nigeria, between September 2008 and January 2009, with the objectives of identifying the sibling species present in the area and comparing the result obtained with cytological studies earlier done in the area. It was also meant to relate fly types with the types of onchocerciasis present in the area. The Simulium flies were collected using human baits. Seventy-five (75) flies were subjected to morphometric examinations. The thorax length, antenna length, wing length, wing width and femur length were measured and the data obtained were transformed into ratios. The morphometric studies on the Simulium damnosum populations in Nkpologu showed a higher abundance of savanna flies (54) than forest flies (21) among those sampled. The classification was done using the thorax length/antenna length (TL/AL) ratio. Discriminate function analysis revealed that 96.0% of originally grouped cases were correctly classified. The result agreed with cytotaxonomic studies on Simulium done in the area which showed predominance of savanna flies. The implications of the results are discussed.

Edwards, F.W. & Gibbins, E.G. Mosquitoes.
Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-35, 1:29-33.
     These systematic papers deal mainly with insects taken in L ganda and Kenya in the course of the Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-35. The Simuliids taken in the Namwamba Valley of Ruwenzori, Uganda, during December 1934, which are dealt with in some detail, were Simulium kauntzeum Gibbins, S. bisnovem Gibbins [cf. R.A.E., B 26 157], S. debegene De Meillon, S. lepidum De Meillon, and S. dentulosum Roub. Other species found in this region are S. duodecimum Gibbins, S. damnosum Theo., and S. cervicormitum Pomeroy, which were taken in the course of the Expedition, and S. taylori Gibbins [loc. cit.], which was taken in 1931. The only Anopheline found among the mosquitos of the bamboo zones on the Birunga Mountains and Ruwenzori was Anopheles garnhami Edw., which was taken at an altitude of 8, 000 ft. in the Birunga Mountains; this species was also taken in Kenya on Mount Kinangop at about the same altitude and on Mount Elgon at about 11, 000 ft. The Anophelines taken on the foothills of Ruwenzori were A. implexus Theo., A. gambiae Giles, A. marshalli var. gibbinsi Evans, and A. demeilloni Evans. The paper on Ceratopogonids, which includes descriptions of new species from Uganda and Kenya, has an appendix by B. De Meillon in which he describes two new species of Ceratopogon from Zululand and erects a new subgenus for them. The paper on Muscids also includes the results of a study of collections from other parts of the Ethiopian Region, and that on fleas deals with 14 species from Uganda and Kenya and includes fuller descriptions of 4 described as new in a recent paper [26 40].

Engelbrecht, F., Hunt, R.H., Coetzee, M. & et al. 2009.
Parasitological Society of Southern Africa : conference papers.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 80:126-140.
     Abstracts of the following papers and posters presented at the 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA), 18-20 September 2007, Pestana Kruger Lodge, Malelane, South Africa: Climatic change over South Africa: Projections and Perceptions; Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection of Babesia caballi infections in equids; Is Plasmodium knowlesi the 5th human malaria parasite?; Identification of Theileria mutans genotypes from African buffalo using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis; The ultrastructure and possible function of the spiracle in ticks; Abalone tubercle mycosis an emerging disease in the South African abalone industry; Blood dietary factors that may influence the survival and production in tsetse flies colonies; The velvet assassins - Amyloodinium ocellatum potential disease risk for captive marine fishes in South Africa; Metal accumulation analysis within tissue of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi; Effect of deworming on EPI programmes; Study of an ectoparasitic crustacean from Malaysia with light and electronmicroscopy; The functional microstructure of the cabbage alphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.); Parasites and diseases of amphibians: Should we be concerned about Madagascar?; Comparative features of Argas walkerae and Argas persicus using scanning electron- and light microscopy; The biodiversity, systematics and ecology of fish parasitic gnathiid isopods from the East Coast of South Africa; An egg-laying rhythm in Diplectanum oliveri (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), a gill parasite of dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus); Infections and mortalities induced by Metarhizium anisopliae in various developmental stages of the red-legged tick Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi using 2 formulations; Control of the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae displaying resistance to multiple insecticides in Ghana; Epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis in northern KwaZulu-Natal 2005?2007; Is the Culicoides fauna changing? Port Elizabeth as a case study; Aspects of the ecology of Cichlidogyrus philander collected in the Padda Dam from Pseudocrenilabrus philander philander; Seasonal distribution of Culicoides spp. on 2 farms in the Western Cape Province; Infection of Anopheles species with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei; Molecular detection of trypanosomes infecting cattle, wild animals and tsetse flies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Parasites - a cost of sociality?; Risk analysis of potential transmission and implications of exotic Gyrodactylus spp. on cultured and wild cyprinids in the Western Cape; The 1st adult gryporhynchid cestode from freshwater fish; Implication of trypanosome strains diversity in the epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis; Aspects of the biology and biogeography of chelonian polystomes; Vector competence of field and colony Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis for trypanosome species in KwaZulu-Natal; Monogenean parasites of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede, 1802) in Tzaneen Dam; The anthelmintic efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) against Haemonchus contortus in communally grazed indigenous goats in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Monitoring performance in South African parasitology proficiency testing programmes, 2003?2007; Development of a TaqMan PCR for the detection of Theileria parva in South Africa; Ticks of livestock in the North West Province of South Africa; Software on-farm decision support systems required for sustainable anthelmintic efficacy; South African Hexabothriidae: History, public aquarium importance, challenges, and the way forward; The effect of starvation on the fish ectoparasite Dolops ranarum (Crustacea: Branchiura); Comparison of 4 light traps for the collection of Culicoides species (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) under South African conditions; Ecological parameters of an unidentified Diplozoon sp. on the bushveld smallscale yellowfish, Labeobarbus polylepis (Boulenger, 1907); Comparison of insecticide resistance in larval and adult life-stages between 3 strains of the malaria vector, Anopheles funestus; Preliminary studies on oviposition site preferences of Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae); A novel Babesia sp. found in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa; The evaluation of the susceptibility of Trypanosoma congolense isolates collected from cattle and buffalo in KwaZulu-Natal to isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate; The ultrastructure of the mange mite Psoroptes pienaari (Fain, 1970) occurring on the African buffalo Syncerus caffer; A new Gnathia sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia; The relevance of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis (Diptera, Glossinidae) colonies for tsetse fly research and management in South Africa; The micromorphology of the Menacanthus body lice collected from a partridge; Spatial distribution of

Eyo, J.E., Onyishi, G.C. & Ugokwe, C.U. 2013.
Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 8:145-151.
     Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy.

Fain, A. & Krantz, G.W. 1990.
Notes on the genus Asperoseius Chant, 1957 (Acari, Phytoseiidae), with descriptions of two new species.
Journal of African Zoology, 104:213-220.
     The holotype of Asperoseius africanus (from cut flowers imported from South Africa into Massachusetts, USA) is redescribed and 2 new species, A. henryae sp. nov. (from the abdomen of Simulium sp. near Kinshasa, Zaire) and A. australiensis sp. nov. (from the midge Culicoides suzukii at Beatrice Hill, Australia) are described.

Fourie, L.J. & Horak, I.G. 2000.
Status of Dorper sheep as hosts of ectoparasites.
Small Ruminant Research, 36:159-164.
     Seventeen ixodid tick species or subspecies have been collected from Dorper sheep in South Africa. The diseases transmitted or the conditions caused by these ticks in sheep are discussed. Although Dorper sheep may be infested with the scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, this does not seem to cause production losses. These sheep may, however, serve as a source of mite infestation for woolled sheep. The majority of Dorper sheep are infested with the larvae of the nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis and they may also be subject to myiasis caused by the larvae of two calliphorid flies. In certain regions of the country Dorper sheep are prone to serious fly worry by female Simulium chutteri. Although Dorper sheep may be infested by various louse species these do not seem to reach large numbers or cause production losses.

Freeman, P. 1950.
Notes on One African and Two Southern Palaearctie Species of Simulium with New Synonymy.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, 43:226-234.
     The species concerned are Simulium wellmanni recorded from Transvaal, Angola, Katanga and Ruanda-Urundi; S. bezzi from South Europe, Spain, France, Italy and Jugoslavia, and S. maculatum from Italy, Jugoslavia and South Russia (Saratov). The paper is purely systematic and is in English with a summary in French. H. S. Leeson.

Freeman, P. & De Meillon, B. 1953.
Simuliidae of the Ethiopian Region.
vii + 224.
     The present period has seen the publication of a number of valuable monographs on groups of biting insects, of which the present volume is an excellent example. Of the two authors, one works in Britain in the British Museum (Natural History) and the other in South Africa in the Institute for Medical Eesearch, a very satisfactory arrangement, for the specimens and other valuable material are for the most part in either one or other of these institutions. The introduction deals with the life history and habits, methods of collecting material and other points of general interest. In considering zoogeography it is pointed out that of all the species of Simulium which occur in the Ethiopian region, one only is known to occur outside the region. As the distribution of these insects is determined very largely by the existence of waters of specialized types, Simulium does not follow the principles which govern the distribution of other insects in the African continent. It would not form a good, general illustration of African zoogeography. The section relating to medical importance and disease gives a good general account of the toxaemic symptoms which result from bites: also of the transmission of Onohooerca and of the entomological aspect of the blinding disease which it causes. The authors might perhaps have called attention to a significant point brought out by D. J. LEWIS, that S. damnosum may be frequent and bite man in areas where onchocerciasis does not occur. This may be due only to the fact that the worm has not yet been introduced; but as the absence of the organism seems to be from places where the atmospheric humidity is very low, the phenomenon may probably be due to the fly not generally living long enough for the parasite to complete its cycle. For that event to occur and the transmission of the Onchocerca to take place, it would seem that a high degree of atmospheric humidity at least at one season of the year is necessary. The authors' discussion of the systematics of African Simulium is very interesting and should be studied by workers in other parts of the world. The females which are much more frequently collected may be extremely difficult or impossible to identify: most of the points of difference between species lie in the male genitalia or in the respiratory filaments of the pupa. These pupal structures may be extremely diverse, within a group of specimens which are not otherwise distinguishable. In such cases the present authors take a Unitarian view, refusing for the moment to recognize species distinguishable only by pupal characters. Accepting that rather conservative view, there are at present 63 species of Simulium and 6 species of the related genus Cnephia known from the Ethiopian region. The more specialized part of the book gives keys to species, technical descriptions on points of classification and descriptions of species. The general level of scholarship and of production is, as need hardly be said, very high. P. A. Buxton.

Fuller, C. 1913.
Fly Plagues. An Unusual Outbreak of Stomoxys calcitrans following Floods.
Agricultural Journal, 5:922-925.
     On the 22nd April 1913 reports were received in Ginginhlovo, Zululand, enclosing specimens of S. calcitrans and stating that this fly was causing ulcerous sores in the skin of pigs, oxen and mules, disturbing the animals' rest and stopping their feeding. The reports added that the flies had only been in evidence since the floods. On the 2nd May a batch of S. calcitrans was received from Transkei, where they were reported to be attacking horses, mules, cattle and even sheep in places for a distance of roughly 30 miles inward from the coast; many cattle had been killed. In. order to obtain relief the animals were reported to have stampeded into the sea and into rivers everywhere. The pest is said to have been intolerable in the areas mentioned for more than a month after the heavy rains experienced in March. Though the fly is common enough in South Africa, this is the first record of such an unusual outbreak; but similar cases have been observed and studied in the United States, where they were also accompanied by considerable loss of stock [see this Review, Ser. B. p. 96]. The author says that the farmer can do little to help his cattle except by giving them such direct protection as he can devise with the means at his disposal. Repellent smears and sprays have often been suggested, but experiment has shown that none of these give more than temporary relief, and some of those recommended have proved injurious to the animals. The best method of controlling S. calcitrans is by thoroughly scattering manure which contains straw and by avoiding the accumulation of decaying hay and other vegetable refuse. Working animals can also be protected by covers, and stall-fed stock by screening their stables. In connection with the unusual outbreaks of Stomoxys calcitrans experienced elsewhere, it has generally been found that epidemics of disease follow; thus, in red-water areas native and immune cattle are attacked by the disease, which is attributed to weakness and anaemia resulting from the attacks of the fly. The fly is also accused of transmitting glanders and anthrax as a direct carrying agent. The author has received from Transkei several specimens of Simulium obtained from sheep at Mevana, on the border between Libode and Port St. Johns. These flies were found fully gorged and attacking sheep in the neighbourhood of fly-blown sores. Horses which have died lately in that neighbourhood (probably from horse sickness) have been found to have their ears full of this fly and blood was oozing from the bites. A number of different species of Simulium exist throughout South Africa, but outbreaks must bo regarded as rare, the flies being very local. One species is a great pest of poultry in certain districts round Capetown. The author says that the control of the insect in its earlier stages is quite impracticable and that stock can only be protected by burning smudges and by smears.

Garms, R., Lakwo, T.L., Ndyomugyenyi, R., Kipp, W., Rubaale, T., Tukesiga, E., Katamanywa, J., Post, R.J. & Amazigo, U.V. 2009.
The elimination of the vector Simulium neavei from the Itwara onchocerciasis focus in Uganda by ground larviciding.
Acta Tropica, 111:203-210.
     The Itwara focus of onchocerciasis covers an area of approximately 600 km(2) in western Uganda about 20 km north of Fort Portal. The vector is Simulium neavei, whose larvae and pupae live in a phoretic association on freshwater crabs. The phoretic host in the Itwara focus is the crab Potamonautes aloysiisabaudiae. Before any onchocerciasis control, ATPs were estimated to reach between 4500 and 6500 infective larvae per person per year. S. neavei was found to be a very efficient vector with 40% of parous flies harbouring developing larvae of Onchocerca volvulus. After 4 years of community-based distribution of ivermectin transmission was still considerable and in 1995 monthly treatment of streams with the larvicide temephos commenced in the first of three sub-foci, and was gradually extended to the whole focus. Biting S. neavei disappeared from the first sub-focus (Itwara main) in June 1996, and the last infested crab was caught in November 1996. In the second sub-focus (Siisa) treatment commenced towards the end of 1995, and the last biting fly was caught in March 1997, but a deterioration in the security situation interrupted the programme (after only three treatments in the third sub-focus). Monthly treatments restarted in the second and third sub-foci (Aswa) in September 1998, and when the situation was reassessed in 2003 no biting flies were found anywhere, and the flies had not reinvaded the first sub-focus, but infected crabs were found in the second and third sub-foci. The last treatments were carried out in April-June 2003, and since then no infested crabs have been found. In summary, no S. neavei-infested crabs have been found anywhere in the focus since June 2003 and the vector is considered eliminated from that date. However, transmission had already been halted since February 2001. when the last biting flies had been collected. The parasite reservoir should die out in the human population by 2016. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gibbins, E.G. 1941.
Notes on Ethiopian Simuliidae. III.
East African medical journal, 18:210-218.
     This paper, which is concerned mainly with distribution, includes new records for 19 species and two varieties of Simulium from the Belgian Congo, the Gold Coast, Kenya, the Cape Province of South Africa, the Sudan, Sierra Leone, Tanganyika and Uganda. Diagnostic characters are given for adults and pupae of S. copleyi, sp. n., from Kenya, and S. hessei, sp. n., from the Cape Province, and for pupae of S. alcocki var. henrardi, n., from the Belgian Congo and Uganda. The other species dealt with include S. alcocki, Pomeroy, which has been observed to feed on fowls and was taken in the Belgian Congo, and five species that suck human blood. A breeding place of S. damnosum, Theo., in Tanganyika is recorded for the first time, and new records for this species from Uganda include Bwamba, where the author lived for six months in the bush without being bitten. Adults were caught biting in new districts in Tanganyika, Sierra Leone and the Gold Coast. S. bovis, De Meillon, is recorded for the first time in Uganda. S. neavei, Roub., the breeding place of which is unknown, was taken in Kenya and Tanganyika when onchocercosis due to Onchocerca volvulus was prevalent [cf. R.A.E., B 28 209]. The immature stages of S. adersi, Pomeroy, were found commonly on the blades of grasses in swiftly flowing rivers in Uganda, where it also breeds in the rough waters of a lake. There are new records of S. medusaeformis, Pomeroy, in Kenya and Tanganyika.

Gibbins, E.G. 1939.
Simuliidae.
Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-35, 1:11-27.
     These systematic papers deal mainly with insects taken in L ganda and Kenya in the course of the Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-35. The Simuliids taken in the Namwamba Valley of Ruwenzori, Uganda, during December 1934, which are dealt with in some detail, were Simulium kauntzeum Gibbins, S. bisnovem Gibbins [cf. R.A.E., B 26 157], S. debegene De Meillon, S. lepidum De Meillon, and S. dentulosum Roub. Other species found in this region are S. duodecimum Gibbins, S. damnosum Theo., and S. cervicormitum Pomeroy, which were taken in the course of the Expedition, and S. taylori Gibbins [loc. cit.], which was taken in 1931. The only Anopheline found among the mosquitos of the bamboo zones on the Birunga Mountains and Ruwenzori was Anopheles garnhami Edw., which was taken at an altitude of 8, 000 ft. in the Birunga Mountains; this species was also taken in Kenya on Mount Kinangop at about the same altitude and on Mount Elgon at about 11, 000 ft. The Anophelines taken on the foothills of Ruwenzori were A. implexus Theo., A. gambiae Giles, A. marshalli var. gibbinsi Evans, and A. demeilloni Evans. The paper on Ceratopogonids, which includes descriptions of new species from Uganda and Kenya, has an appendix by B. De Meillon in which he describes two new species of Ceratopogon from Zululand and erects a new subgenus for them. The paper on Muscids also includes the results of a study of collections from other parts of the Ethiopian Region, and that on fleas deals with 14 species from Uganda and Kenya and includes fuller descriptions of 4 described as new in a recent paper [26 40].

Gibbins, E.G. 1938.
Notes on Ethiopian Simuliidae. II.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 32:21-33.
     This paper is based mainly on a study of the Ethiopian Simuliids in the collections at the British Museum and the South African Museum, Cape Town. The characters distinguishing five new species, S. barnardi and S. turneri from South Africa, and S. kauntzeum, S. taylori and S. bisnovem from Uganda, are described, and notes are given on the distribution and synonymy of other species. These include S. dentulosum, Roub. (gilvipes, Pom., ruwenzoriensis, Gibbins), S. medusaeformis, Pom. (pseudomedusaeformis, De Meillon), S. neavei, Roub. (vorax, Pom.), S. elgonensis, Gibbins (tisiphone, De Meillon), and S. cavum, n.n. (obsciirum, Gibbins, nec. tristrigatum var. obscurum, Enderl.).

Globisch, D., Moreno, A.Y., Hixon, M.S., Nunes, A.A.K., Denery, J.R., Specht, S., Hoerauf, A. & Janda, K.D. 2013.
Onchocerca volvulus-neurotransmitter tyramine is a biomarker for river blindness.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110:4218-4223.
     Onchocerciasis, also known as "river blindness", is a neglected tropical disease infecting millions of people mainly in Africa and the Middle East but also in South America and Central America. Disease infectivity initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious third-stage larvae. Ivermectin has controlled transmission of microfilariae, with an African Program elimination target date of 2025. However, there is currently no point-of-care diagnostic that can distinguish the burden of infection including active and/or past infection and enable the elimination program to be effectively monitored. Here, we describe how liquid chromatography-MS-based urine metabolome analysis can be exploited for the identification of a unique biomarker, N-acetyltyramine-O,beta-glucuronide (NATOG), a neurotransmitter-derived secretion metabolite from O. volvulus. The regulation of this tyramine neurotransmitter was found to be linked to patient disease infection, including the controversial antibiotic doxycyline treatment that has been shown to both sterilize and kill adult female worms. Further clues to its regulation have been elucidated through biosynthetic pathway determination within the nematode and its human host. Our results demonstrate that NATOG tracks O. volvulus metabolism in both worms and humans, and thus can be considered a host-specific biomarker for onchocerciasis progression. Liquid chromatography-MS-based urine metabolome analysis discovery of NATOG not only has broad implications for a noninvasive host-specific onchocerciasis diagnostic but provides a basis for the metabolome mining of other neglected tropical diseases for the discovery of distinct biomarkers and monitoring of disease progression.

Gopal, H., Hassan, H.K., Rodriguez-Perez, M.A., Toe, L.D., Lustigman, S. & Unnasch, T.R. 2012.
Oligonucleotide Based Magnetic Bead Capture of Onchocerca volvulus DNA for PCR Pool Screening of Vector Black Flies.
Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6:e1712.
     Background: Entomological surveys of Simulium vectors are an important component in the criteria used to determine if Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been interrupted and if focal elimination of the parasite has been achieved. However, because infection in the vector population is quite rare in areas where control has succeeded, large numbers of flies need to be examined to certify transmission interruption. Currently, this is accomplished through PCR pool screening of large numbers of flies. The efficiency of this process is limited by the size of the pools that may be screened, which is in turn determined by the constraints imposed by the biochemistry of the assay. The current method of DNA purification from pools of vector black flies relies upon silica adsorption. This method can be applied to screen pools containing a maximum of 50 individuals (from the Latin American vectors) or 100 individuals (from the African vectors). Methodology/Principal Findings: We have evaluated an alternative method of DNA purification for pool screening of black flies which relies upon oligonucleotide capture of Onchocerca volvulus genomic DNA from homogenates prepared from pools of Latin American and African vectors. The oligonucleotide capture assay was shown to reliably detect one O. volvulus infective larva in pools containing 200 African or Latin American flies, representing a two-four fold improvement over the conventional assay. The capture assay requires an equivalent amount of technical time to conduct as the conventional assay, resulting in a two-four fold reduction in labor costs per insect assayed and reduces reagent costs to $3.81 per pool of 200 flies, or less than $ 0.02 per insect assayed. Conclusions/Significance: The oligonucleotide capture assay represents a substantial improvement in the procedure used to detect parasite prevalence in the vector population, a major metric employed in the process of certifying the elimination of onchocerciasis.

Haeselbarth, E., Segerman, J. & Zumpt, F. 1966.
The Arthropod Parasites of Vertebrates in Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Region). Vol. III (Insecta excl. Phthiraptera).
283.
     Volume I of this series, published in 1961 [this Bulletin, 1961, v. 58, 1310] dealt with an extensive range of ectoparasites, mostly acariñes although not ticks. The ticks are to form Volume II but, for reasons of the taxonomic problems which arise in this large and important group, Volume II is not yet complete and is, now, preceded by this work, Volume III, on various insect orders, viz. Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera and Siphonaptera. The final work, Volume IV, will be concerned with the biting and the sucking lice; this is still in preparation. The well-known member of the Dermaptera, the ear-wig, is not an animal parasite; there are, however, several species of the dermap-terans, Hemimerus, briefly reported and illustrated; they are ectoparasites of rats and, some at least, feed on skin cells. There seems much scope for work on these little-known insects as, indeed also, on the bugs (Hemiptera) which, apart from the widely familiar bedbugs (Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius), include numerous species in other genera, for the most part parasites of bats. They are notable for the scanty data about them. Keys to genera and several line-drawings of species in the 18 pages devoted to these two orders should be helpful to their further study. The bulk of the book is on parasitic flies and fleas, about 100 pages on each order. The flies (Order Diptera) are accepted as composing two suborders, Nematocera and also Brachycera (= Brachycera + Cyclorrhapha of older usage). The mosquitoes, midges, blackfly and sandflies in the Nematocera are briefly but usefully discussed by outlining their biology, illustrating the main features, and providing for those of Africa the major references into the literature and species synonomy. Where major systematic works of recent years exist, treatment of a group is, sensibly enough, almost nominal but the reader finds references to any new species since published in journals. In general, this approach is the basis of the sections which follow on tabanids, stable-fly, tsetse, houseflies and blowflies, bot flies, hippoboscids and nycteribiids. The last three groups, however, are rather more fully presented, with keys to genera. An introductory section on fleas precedes the treatment of the numerous fleas in the region covered by the book. This, as for the dipterous parasites, includes numerous line drawings, in addition to keys to genera. There is a host-parasite list (40 pages) arranged in 2 parts-wild animal hosts, and domestic animals and man, indexes to parasites and to hosts, and a reference list to over 200 publications. The scope of subject matter covered by this volume is tremendous. The authors can be commended for their purposeful selection, and for emphasis particularly towards those groups and species less usually met with in the course of conventional problems of medical or veterinary affairs. A balance is sustained throughout, however, by guiding the reader to the fuller literature, much of it quite recent, which already exists elsewhere, for the well-known insect parasites of vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara. D. S. Bertram.

Hallot, R., Fain, A., Bafort, J. & Lips, M. 1965.
New observations on the Simuliids of Elisabeth-ville (Katanga).
Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale, 45:511-530.
     The following is based partly on the authors' summary. The Simulad fauna of the Elisabethville region of the Congo (Kinshasa) was studied from material obtained by rearing pupae collected in 1961-62 and 1965 and by capture of adults in 1961-62 and from specimens in Belgian museums; the findings are tabulated and discussed. The authors' material comprised 17 species and subspecies. The presence of most of the species previously recorded from the area was confirmed, and that of two additional species and one subspecies was established. Simulium damnosum Theo. was reared and taken biting man. S. neavei Roub. was not found. S. albivirgulatum Wns. & Henrard was reared from pupae, and adults were caught at light but not biting. Numerous females of a species tentatively identified as S. merops De Meillon were taken, many of them on human bait and seven of them in the act of biting. They were identical with two specimens received from Rhodesia for comparison but differed in minor details from a specimen from South Africa that corresponds with Freeman & De Meillon's description in a work already noticed [RAE B 42 15].

Higazi, T.B., Zarroug, I.M.A., Mohamed, H.A., Mohamed, W.A., Deran, T.C.M., Aziz, N., Katabarwa, M., Hassan, H.K., Unnasch, T.R., Mackenzie, C.D. & Richards, F. 2011.
Short Report: Polymerase Chain Reaction Pool Screening Used To Compare Prevalence of Infective Black Flies in Two Onchocerciasis Foci in Northern Sudan.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 84:753-756.
     Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infectious stage L3 larvae by using an O-150 polymerase chain reaction protocol showed that black fly infectivity rates were 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.0497-1.88) per 10,000 flies for Abu Hamed and 6.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-16.4) infective flies per 10,000 for Galabat. These results provide entomologic evidence for suppressed Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus and a moderate transmission rate of the parasite in the Galabat focus.

Hobololo, V.L. 2009.
Spatial distribution of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) challenge for livestock farmers along the Vaal River, South Africa.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 80:137.

Hobololo, V.L. 2009.
Spatial distribution of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliildae) challenge for livestock farmers along the Vaal River, South Africa.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association-Tydskrif Van Die Suid-Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging, 80:137-137.

Howell, C.J. 1975.
Veterinary entomology in southern Africa - paper presented at the Entomological Symposium, Pretoria 27 September to 1 October 1971.
[2 +]28.
     A brief historical account of studies on veterinary entomology in southern Africa is presented by E. M. Nevill & G. Theiler, and the present state of knowledge concerning the chief arthropods that infest domestic animals is reviewed and suggestions for future research made by various workers. Nevill reviews studies on mosquitos and the viruses they transmit, Ceratopogonids and their possible significance as vectors of disease agents, Phlebotomines, Simuliids, Tabanids, Muscids and Oestrids (of which the species of veterinary importance are Oestrus ovis L., Gedoelstia haessleri Ged. and G. cristata Rodh. & Beq.). The problems that Glossina still presents in Rhodesia, Mozambique and the Bowswana-Caprivi complex and recent research on them are dealt with by E.B. Kluge. Knowledge on Calliphorids, Gasterophilids and Hippoboscids is reviewed by P. Hesse, and work on lice, fleas and mites by R.S. du Plessis. G.B. Whitehead discusses the problem of acaracide resistance in the control of ticks in South Africa, and C.J. Howell reviews information on ticks and disease. G. Theiler presents a brief review of the literature on the ecology of South African ticks, and finally J.R. Malan deals with acaricides in use in South Africa and their efficacy against South African ticks and describes a laboratory method developed at Onderstepoort for the determination of resistance in engorged individuals of Boophilus decoloratus (Koch).

Howell, C.J., Begemann, G.J., Muir, R.W. & Louw, P. 1981.
The control of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera) in South African rivers by modification of the water flow volume.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 48:47-49.
     It was found that simuliid numbers (especially those of Simulium chutteri Lewis) subsequent to the construction of dams in the Vaal and Orange Rivers, South Africa, could be successfully prevented by periodic, artificially controlled reductions in the water levels in these rivers.

Howerth, E.W., Mead, D.G. & Stallknecht, D.E. 2002.
Immunolocalization of vesicular stomatitis virus in black flies (Simulium vittatum).
Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 969:340-345.
     Vesicular stomatitis, a disease of cattle, horses, and swine, is caused by either vesicular stomatitis virus, New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ), or vesicular stomatitis virus, Indiana serotype, which are related viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus, family Rhabdoviridae. Although recognized for at least 160 years, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease remains undefined. Black flies have been suggested as a vector for VSV-NJ. In this study we infected three- to four-week-old female black flies with VSV-NJ via feeding of virus-spiked ox blood or intrathoracic inoculation, and demonstrated the location of virus by immunohistochemistry. These preliminary findings suggest that VSV-NJ initially infects the gut in the natural situation but that subsequent spread to the salivary gland may be blocked in older flies, decreasing their ability to transmit the virus. The pattern of staining was different in intrathoracic inoculated flies. In these flies, salivary gland involvement was more likely, and extensive staining of eye, brain, and hemolymph suggested a more generalized infection that apparently circumvented the gut. We conclude that intrathoracic inoculation may be an inappropriate method of infection for determining vector competence and that the age of the vector should be considered when conducting competency studies.

Huchzermeyer, F.W. & Sutherland, B. 1978.
Leucocytozoon smithi in South African turkeys.
Avian Pathology, 7:645-649.
     Leucocytozoon smithi was discovered in a flock of turkeys not far from Onderstepoort, South Africa. This is the first record of the presence of this parasite in Africa. Simulium nigritarsis Coq. is suspected to act as the vector.

Immelman, D.W. 1984.
Annual report of the Director General: Agriculture for the period 1 April 1982 to 31 March 1983.
vii + 72.
     The studies reviewed in a section on plant protection research (pp. 12-17) of this report on agricultural research in South Africa include those on specialised taxonomic studies (including studies on Isoptera, Neuroptera, Curculionidae, Aphididae and parasitic Hymenoptera); biological and integrated control (including the control of pests of sorghum and cotton); insects in stored products; bee research (including the recent establishment of Varroa jacobsoni Oudm. as a parasite of Apis mellifera L.); forest and timber insects; aphids (including the pine pest Pineus pini (Gmel.) and the release of the parasite Pauesia bicolor (Ashm.) for the biological control of the pine pest Cinara cronartii Tissot & Pepper); and the biological control of weeds (including the release of 4 species of insects against lantana, studies on the potential of several natural enemies of jointed cactus (Opuntia aurantiaca), and the release of 4 natural enemies of Hakea and long-leaved wattle (Acacia longifolia)). The studies reviewed in a section on animal health (pp. 21-27) include those on external parasites of sheep, pigs and cattle.

Immelman, D.W. 1983.
Report of the Director General: Agriculture for the period 1 April 1981 to 31 March 1982.
174.
     A section on animal health (pp. 78-105) of this report on agriculture in South Africa includes notes on tick control (especially in relation to the transmission of Anaplasma, Babesia and sweating sickness), the control of Simulium spp., and various arthropods parasitic on domestic animals.

Jacob, B.G., Novak, R.J., Toe, L.D., Sanfo, M., Griffith, D.A., Lakwo, T.L., Habomugisha, P., Katabarwa, M.N. & Unnasch, T.R. 2013.
Validation of a Remote Sensing Model to Identify Simulium damnosum s.l. Breeding Sites in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7:e2342.
     Background: Recently, most onchocerciasis control programs have begun to focus on elimination. Developing an effective elimination strategy relies upon accurately mapping the extent of endemic foci. In areas of Africa that suffer from a lack of infrastructure and/or political instability, developing such accurate maps has been difficult. Onchocerciasis foci are localized near breeding sites for the black fly vectors of the infection. The goal of this study was to conduct ground validation studies to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a remote sensing model developed to predict S. damnosum s.l. breeding sites. Methodology/Principal Findings: Remote sensing images from Togo were analyzed to identify areas containing signature characteristics of S. damnosum s.l. breeding habitat. All 30 sites with the spectral signature were found to contain S. damnosum larvae, while 0/52 other sites judged as likely to contain larvae were found to contain larvae. The model was then used to predict breeding sites in Northern Uganda. This area is hyper-endemic for onchocerciasis, but political instability had precluded mass distribution of ivermectin until 2009. Ground validation revealed that 23/25 sites with the signature contained S. damnosum larvae, while 8/10 sites examined lacking the signature were larvae free. Sites predicted to have larvae contained significantly more larvae than those that lacked the signature. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that a signature extracted from remote sensing images may be used to predict the location of S. damnosum s.l. breeding sites with a high degree of accuracy. This method should be of assistance in predicting communities at risk for onchocerciasis in areas of Africa where ground-based epidemiological surveys are difficult to implement.

Jacobi, C.A., Enyong, P. & Renz, A. 2010.
Individual exposure to Simulium bites and intensity of Onchocerca volvulus infection.
Parasites and Vectors, 3:(18 June 2010)-(18 June 2010).
     Background: Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness, is transmitted through the black fly Simulium damnosum s.l., which breeds in turbulent river waters. To date, the number of flies attacking humans has only been determined by standard fly collectors near the river or the village. In our study, we counted the actual number of attacking and successfully feeding S. damnosum s.l. flies landing on individual villagers during their routine day-time activities in two villages of the Sudan-savannah and rainforest of Cameroon. We compared these numbers to the number of flies caught by a standard vector-collector, one positioned near the particular villager during his/her daily activity and the other sitting at the nearest Simulium breeding site. Results: Using these data obtained by the two vector-collectors, we were able to calculate the Actual Index of Exposure (AIE). While the AIE in the savannah was on average 6,3%, it was 34% in the rainforest. The Effective Annual Transmission Potential (EATP) for individual villagers was about 20 fold higher in the rainforest compared to the savannah. Conclusions: Here we show for the first time that it is possible to determine the EATP. Further studies with more subjects are needed in the future. These data are important for the development of future treatment strategies.

Jordaan, L.C. & Van Ark, H. 1990.
A survey of annoyance of livestock by Simulium chutteri Lewis along the Orange River, South.
Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research, 57:189-195.
     A survey by means of questionnaires was conducted along the Orange River to determine the extent of blackfly annoyance to livestock during 1984-1988. 40. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Jordan, K. Siphonaptera.
Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-35, 3:41-49.
     These systematic papers deal mainly with insects taken in L ganda and Kenya in the course of the Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-35. The Simuliids taken in the Namwamba Valley of Ruwenzori, Uganda, during December 1934, which are dealt with in some detail, were Simulium kauntzeum Gibbins, S. bisnovem Gibbins [cf. R.A.E., B 26 157], S. debegene De Meillon, S. lepidum De Meillon, and S. dentulosum Roub. Other species found in this region are S. duodecimum Gibbins, S. damnosum Theo., and S. cervicormitum Pomeroy, which were taken in the course of the Expedition, and S. taylori Gibbins [loc. cit.], which was taken in 1931. The only Anopheline found among the mosquitos of the bamboo zones on the Birunga Mountains and Ruwenzori was Anopheles garnhami Edw., which was taken at an altitude of 8, 000 ft. in the Birunga Mountains; this species was also taken in Kenya on Mount Kinangop at about the same altitude and on Mount Elgon at about 11, 000 ft. The Anophelines taken on the foothills of Ruwenzori were A. implexus Theo., A. gambiae Giles, A. marshalli var. gibbinsi Evans, and A. demeilloni Evans. The paper on Ceratopogonids, which includes descriptions of new species from Uganda and Kenya, has an appendix by B. De Meillon in which he describes two new species of Ceratopogon from Zululand and erects a new subgenus for them. The paper on Muscids also includes the results of a study of collections from other parts of the Ethiopian Region, and that on fleas deals with 14 species from Uganda and Kenya and includes fuller descriptions of 4 described as new in a recent paper [26 40].

Jupp, P.G. 1986.
The NIV light trap for collecting biting Nematocera (Diptera).
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 49:162-166.
     The construction and use are described of the NIV light trap, which was developed in South Africa in response to a need for a compact lightweight portable light-suction trap for collecting biting Diptera, using locally available materials. Data are presented on catches of Phlebotominae, simuliids and adults of Culex, Aedes and Culicoides that were made in 1983 and 1985.

Jupp, P.G. & Palmer, R.W. 1999.
Blackflies bite a resident of suburban Johannesburg : short report : SAMJ forum.
South African medical journal, 89:388-389.
     Reports on the identification of two species of Simulium blackflies after a report of blackfly bites by a woman from Sandringham. Explains that this is only the third documented report of blackflies biting humans in South Africa. Illustrates with a photograph 22. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Kalinga, A. & Post, R.J. 2011.
An apparent halt to the decline of Simulium woodi in the Usambara foci of onchocerciasis in Tanzania.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 105:273-276.

Katabarwa, M.N., Walsh, F., Habomugisha, P., Lakwo, T.L., Agunyo, S., Oguttu, D.W., Unnasch, T.R., Unoba, D., Byamukama, E., Tukesiga, E., Ndyomugyenyi, R. & Richards, F.O. 2012.
Transmission of onchocerciasis in Wadelai focus of Northwestern Uganda has been interrupted and the disease eliminated.
Journal of Parasitology Research, 2012:748540-rticle ID 748540.
     Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control onchocerciasis only as a public health problem. From 2006 to 2010, Wadelai program successfully attained ultimate treatment goal (UTG), treatment coverage of ≥90%, despite expanding from 19 to 34 communities and from 5,600 annual treatments to over 29,000 semiannual treatments. Evaluations in 2009 showed no microfilaria in skin snips of over 500 persons examined, and only 1 of 3011 children was IgG4 antibody positive to the OV16 recombinant antigen. No Simulium vectors were found, and their disappearance could have sped up interruption of transmission. Although twice-per-year treatment had an unclear role in interruption of transmission, the experience demonstrated that twice-per-year treatment is feasible in the Ugandan setting. The monitoring data support the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from the Wadelai focus of Uganda.

Katabarwa, M.N., Eyamba, A., Chouaibou, M., Enyong, P., Kuete, T., Yaya, S., Yougouda, A., Baldiagai, J., Madi, K., Andze, G.O. & Richards, F. 2010.
Does onchocerciasis transmission take place in hypoendemic areas? a study from the North Region of Cameroon.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 15:645-652.
     P>Objective Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control is targeted to meso and hyperendemic areas in Africa. Below the threshold, communities are considered hypoendemic and, mass treatment is not recommended. As policy begins to shift from control to elimination, the role of hypoendemic areas in maintaining Onchocerca volvulus needs to be re-examined. The study determined whether independent transmission occurs in a hypoendemic area in the North region of Cameroon. Methods Ten 'high risk' communities along the River Mayo Douka system in Ngong Health District, at least 20 km from the nearest CDTI program were studied. Six hundred and forty-nine adults (over 20 years of age) and 561 children (under 10 years) were examined for nodules and microfilaria. A subsample of 334 adults was examined for onchocercal ocular morbidity. Simulium flies from 4 collection points were captured over 3 months annually for 2 years and dissected for larval stages of O. volvulus. Results Nodule and microfilariae (mf) prevalence among adults was 12.20% and 2.91%, and 9.2% and 0.48% among children, respectively. Blindness because of onchocerciasis was insignificant, although low rates of chronic onchocercal ocular disease (< 2%) were observed. Four (0.16 percent) of 255 flies collected in 2008 were infected with L3 larval stage, and 1 black fly of 39 collected in 2009 had two L2 larval stage morphologically consistent with O. volvulus. Conclusion Ngong is a 'hypoendemic' focus with likely low grade indigenous transmission in isolation from meso/hyperendemic areas. Consequently, transmission from hypoendemic areas could contribute to rapid disease recrudescence in the post-treatment phase of adjacent former meso and hyperendemic areas.

Katabarwa, M.N., Eyamba, A., Nwane, P., Enyong, P., Yaya, S., Baldiagai, J., Madi, T.K., Yougouda, A., Andze, G.O. & Richards, F.O. 2011.
Seventeen Years of Annual Distribution of Ivermectin Has Not Interrupted Onchocerciasis Transmission in North Region, Cameroon.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85:1041-1049.
     We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%. respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease.

Kok, D.J. & Oberem, P.T. 1994.
A method for the assessment of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) attraction to and engorgement on sheep in South Africa.
Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research, 61:7-11.
     A suspended-net technique was used to capture blackflies attracted to and engorging on Dorper and Merino sheep on irrigated pastures. The technique is useful for quantifying the abundance of irritating blackflies in the immediate proximity of smallstock under experimental conditions. 35. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Krüger, A., Car, M. & Maegga, B.T.A. 2005.
Descriptions of members of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from southern Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 99:293-306.
     This paper presents cytotaxonomic details of five populations of the Simulium damnosum complex from South Africa, Swaziland and Ethiopia. The 'Nkusi SW' and 'Pienaars' forms are newly designated members of the complex from South Africa, but the taxonomic rank of an isolate indistinguishable chromosomally from the 'Nkusi' cytoform remains unclear. From Ethiopia two cytoforms were identified, one of which shares two diagnostic chromosome inversions with the cytoform 'Kisiwani' from Tanzania. The second form belongs to S. kaffaense, and is the suspected local vector of Onchocerca volvulus. In addition, a re-analysis of the cytoform 'Kibwezi' from north-eastern Tanzania provided further insights into its population subdivision, and its genetic and morphological characteristics. Cytotaxonomic similarities between 'Kibwezi', S. mengense and S. pandanophilum, along with their biogeography, indicate a relict status of each of these taxa.

Kruger, A. & Hennings, I.C. 2006.
Molecular phylogenetics of blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex and cytophylogenetic implications.
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 39:83-90.
     The molecular phylogenetics of the Simulium damnosum complex, including vectors of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus, from various parts of Africa was studied and compared with results of cytogenetic analyses. The sequence data of mitochondrial 16s and nuclear ITS2 rDNA revealed that the complex comprises two main clades, roughly covering the more easterly and westerly African taxa, respectively. However, striking inconsistencies in the tree topologies turned up between the DNA fragments regarding the position of certain subcomplexes and species. The cytophylogenetic relationships are better reflected in the ITS2 tree where Simulium pandanophilum and Simulium mengense constitute a basal, Central African clade of the entire complex and are therefore suggested to be the chromosomal roots too. Further divisions and the corresponding biogeographic interpretations are discussed. Several species and cytoforms are placed within the system for the first time. The phylogenetic relationships within the complex do hardly correlate with host preferences or other behavioral and ecological characteristics.

Kruger, A., Mustapha, M., Kalinga, A.K., Tambala, P.A.J., Post, R.J. & Maegga, B.T.A. 2006.
Revision of the Ketaketa subcomplex of blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex.
Medical and veterinary entomology, 20:76-92.
     A revision of the taxonomy of the Ketaketa subcomplex of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) is presented including new material from Tanzania, Malawi and South Africa. The cytotaxonomy, morphology and molecular identity of known and new taxa are described. The Ketaketa subcomplex is cytotaxonomically defined by the paracentric inversion 1L-7. We recognize three sibling species, namely Simulium latipollex (Enderlein), Simulium plumbeum Krueger, sp.n. and Simulium kipengere Krueger, sp.n., the latter comprising three cytoforms: 'Typical', 'Linthipe' and 'Mombo'. The cytoforms 'Mwamphanzi', 'Ketaketa' and 'Hammerkopi' are synonymized with S. plumbeum. Identification keys are provided on the basis of chromosomal and morphological characters. In view of their potential role as vectors of human onchocerciasis (river blindness) we also discuss the possible medical importance of the different cytoforms and their geographical distribution.

Lakwo, T.L., Garms, R., Rubaale, T., Katabarwa, M., Walsh, F., Habomugisha, P., Oguttu, D., Unnasch, T., Namanya, H., Tukesiga, E., Katamanywa, J., Bamuhiiga, J., Byamukama, E., Agunyo, S. & Richards, F. 2013.
The disappearance of onchocerciasis from the Itwara focus, western Uganda after elimination of the vector Simulium neavei and 19 years of annual ivermectin treatments.
Acta Tropica, 126:218-221.
     The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Le Roux, P.L. 1929.
Onchocerciasis of Cattle, with special Reference to its possible Life-cycle and Control.
107-112.
     The Nematodes of the genus Onchocerca infesting cattle in various parts of the world are listed, and the present knowledge regarding the bionomics of O. gibsoni is briefly reviewed. The author considers that the presence of the nodules of this parasite on the brisket of cattle strongly suggests that it is transmitted by Simuliids, which usually attack that part of the animal. Simulium damnosum, Theo., which is the vector of O. volvulus of man in West Africa, where it also attacks goats, occurs in the Transvaal, but feeds there mainly on the blood of birds. Another South African species, S. nigritarsis, Coq., has not hitherto been found to attack cattle. The relative scarcity of O. gibsoni in South Africa may be due to the preference for avian blood of the Simuliids that occur there. The author gives notes on the rearing of Simuliids, with a view to carrying out transmission experiments with them, and suggests that methods of controlling the larvae by means of chemicals should be investigated.

Lenga, A., Lenga-Loumingou, I.A., Moussounda, M.M. & Vouidibio, J. 2013.
The Prurigo Strophulus in Brazzaville: Demonstration of Vectors and Study of Some Associated Bioecological Parameters.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 45:121-128.
     Strophulus prurigo, chronic skin disease widespread in Africa in general and the Congo - Brazzaville in particular is studied here in a neighborhood of the city of Brazzaville located near a watercourse. Studies conducted at 100m and 500m from the river show a frequency of infestation which is highest near water. Two arthropods are reported to cause infections in prurigo strophulus: dipteran Simulidae, Simulium albivirgulatum and an Ixodidae mite, Ixodus ricinus L. The notion of a genetic transmission of this disease is hypothetical. Suspicion of a hereditary origin of this infection is not confirmed here. Field of patients with prurigo does not seem to be atopic. The study of daily activity rhythms of Simulium albivirgulatum shows that this insect is well suited to urban areas with peaks of both diurnal and crepuscular activity, providing important human parasite pressure. The dermatological consequences are all the more important that individuals are less covered mainly in the limbs according to their clothing habits. In addition, our results indicate a predominance of women in the prevalence of this infection, regardless of the age groups considered.

Lewis, D.J. 1964.
On the Simulium bovas Complex((Díptera, Simuliidae).
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 7:449-455.
     Simulium bovis bites man in Northern Nigeria and may play a part in the transmission of onchocerciasis [this Bulletin, 1957, v. 54, 1114]. The author gives a key to the 4 species known in the complex: S. bovis, S. arnoldi, S. chutteri (a new species from South Africa described here), and Simulium species " Sudan A", known only in the adult stage. The characters used in separating the species are differences in the male and female genitalia and the shape of the sensory vesicle on the third segment of the palp. B. R. Laurence

Luus-Powell, W.J. & Myburgh, E. 1999.
A morphological comparison between ergasilids from two mormyrid species from the Okavango Delta; The antimalarial effect of retinoids on Plasmodium falciparum; Control of the blackfly, Simulium chutteri, in the Orange River, South Africa : abstracts.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 70:46.
     Abstracts papers presented at the 26th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa which was held from 9 to 11 September 1998 20. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Macfie, J.W.S. Ceratopogonidae.
Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-35, 1:81-107.
     These systematic papers deal mainly with insects taken in L ganda and Kenya in the course of the Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-35. The Simuliids taken in the Namwamba Valley of Ruwenzori, Uganda, during December 1934, which are dealt with in some detail, were Simulium kauntzeum Gibbins, S. bisnovem Gibbins [cf. R.A.E., B 26 157], S. debegene De Meillon, S. lepidum De Meillon, and S. dentulosum Roub. Other species found in this region are S. duodecimum Gibbins, S. damnosum Theo., and S. cervicormitum Pomeroy, which were taken in the course of the Expedition, and S. taylori Gibbins [loc. cit.], which was taken in 1931. The only Anopheline found among the mosquitos of the bamboo zones on the Birunga Mountains and Ruwenzori was Anopheles garnhami Edw., which was taken at an altitude of 8, 000 ft. in the Birunga Mountains; this species was also taken in Kenya on Mount Kinangop at about the same altitude and on Mount Elgon at about 11, 000 ft. The Anophelines taken on the foothills of Ruwenzori were A. implexus Theo., A. gambiae Giles, A. marshalli var. gibbinsi Evans, and A. demeilloni Evans. The paper on Ceratopogonids, which includes descriptions of new species from Uganda and Kenya, has an appendix by B. De Meillon in which he describes two new species of Ceratopogon from Zululand and erects a new subgenus for them. The paper on Muscids also includes the results of a study of collections from other parts of the Ethiopian Region, and that on fleas deals with 14 species from Uganda and Kenya and includes fuller descriptions of 4 described as new in a recent paper [26 40].

Madikizela, B.R. & Dye, A.H. 2003.
Community composition and distribution of macroinvertebrates in the Umzimvubu River, South Africa: a pre-impoundment study.
African Journal of Aquatic Science, 28:137-149.
     This paper presents baseline biological data on aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in the Umzimvubu River and selected tributaries, in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, prior to the construction of proposed large-scale water resource developments. Sampling was conducted seasonally at 14 sites between 1996 and 1998. The macroinvertebrate community composition was strikingly similar (±70%) across sites. Faunal diversity was low (104 taxa in total), but many taxa found were sensitive to water quality change (ASPT 5.0 to 9.6), indicating good water quality, which is attributed to the currently undeveloped nature of the catchment. Concentrations of water quality variables fell within a narrow range, except for total suspended solids, which at times was very high (up to 8532 mg/litre). The highly variable concentration of the total suspended solids and its potential effects on biodiversity need to be investigated further. It is likely that Bilharzia will spread and that pest blackflies may become a problem to livestock if the water resources become developed as is proposed. We suggest that more flow gauging weirs are needed to measure flows better for future management and also that the implications of the proposed developments on the estuary need to be investigated.

Maegga, B.T.A., Kalinga, A.K., Kabula, B., Post, R.J. & Krueger, A. 2011.
Investigations into the isolation of the Tukuyu focus of onchocerciasis (Tanzania) from S. damnosum s.l. vector re-invasion.
Acta Tropica, 117:86-96.
     As part of the feasibility study for an onchocerciasis vector elimination project we investigated the isolation of the Tukuyu focus in Tanzania from possible vector re-invasion. This was achieved by examining the distribution of the Simulium damnosum complex vector cytospecies outside the focus to look for potential sources of re-invasion. Besides cytotaxonomic identifications of the aquatic stages, we applied morphotaxonomic and molecular techniques to identify S. thyolense and confirm it as the anthropophilic species in both the Tukuyu and the neighbouring Ruvuma foci. We detected significant differences in chromosome inversion frequencies between the Tukuyu populations and those breeding to the southwest in the adjacent Songwe river basin and in northern Malawi (where there is no man-biting and no onchocerciasis), suggesting that there is not normally a great deal of migration in either direction. By contrast, populations of S. thyolense from the Tukuyu and Ruvuma foci (150 km southeast of Tukuyu) were much more similar in terms of their chromosomal polymorphisms, indicating a higher possibility of re-invasion, although migration is still restricted to some extent, as indicated by some differences in chromosome polymorphisms between the two foci. Future migratory events which might be associated with vector control operations can be monitored by vector cytospecies identification, the frequency of polymorphic inversions which characterise the different vector populations, and the identification of accompanying non-vector cytospecies (e.g. S. plumbeum and cytotype Kasyabone occur exclusively in the two foci, and hence their re-appearance in Tukuyu could have only one outside source). The morphology of the scutal pattern of neonate males may act as a quick test for vector species identification where chromosome squashes are unavailable. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.

Makepeace, B.L., Jensen, S.A., Laney, S.J., Nfon, C.K., Njongmeta, L.M., Tanya, V.N., Williams, S.A., Bianco, A.E. & Trees, A.J. 2009.
Immunisation with a multivalent, subunit vaccine reduces patent infection in a natural bovine model of onchocerciasis during intense field exposure.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3:e544-e544.
     Human onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is controlled almost exclusively by the drug ivermectin, which prevents pathology by targeting the microfilariae. However, this reliance on a single control tool has led to interest in vaccination as a potentially complementary strategy. Here, we describe the results of a trial in West Africa to evaluate a multivalent, subunit vaccine for onchocerciasis in the naturally evolved host-parasite relationship of Onchocerca ochengi in cattle. Naive calves, reared in fly-proof accommodation, were immunised with eight recombinant antigens of O. ochengi, administered separately with either Freund's adjuvant or alum. The selected antigens were orthologues of O. volvulus recombinant proteins that had previously been shown to confer protection against filarial larvae in rodent models and, in some cases, were recognised by serum antibodies from putatively immune humans. The vaccine was highly immunogenic, eliciting a mixed IgG isotype response. Four weeks after the final immunisation, vaccinated and adjuvant-treated control calves were exposed to natural parasite transmission by the blackfly vectors in an area of Cameroon hyperendemic for O. ochengi. After 22 months, all the control animals had patent infections (i.e., microfilaridermia), compared with only 58% of vaccinated cattle ( P=0.015). This study indicates that vaccination to prevent patent infection may be an achievable goal in onchocerciasis, reducing both the pathology and transmissibility of the infection. The cattle model has also demonstrated its utility for preclinical vaccine discovery, although much research will be required to achieve the requisite target product profile of a clinical candidate.

Makepeace, B.L., Jensen, S.A., Laney, S.J., Nfon, C.K., Njongmeta, L.M., Tanya, V.N., Williams, S.A., Bianco, A.E. & Trees, A.J. 2009.
Immunisation with a Multivalent, Subunit Vaccine Reduces Patent Infection in a Natural Bovine Model of Onchocerciasis during Intense Field Exposure.
Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3:e544.
     Human onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is controlled almost exclusively by the drug ivermectin, which prevents pathology by targeting the microfilariae. However, this reliance on a single control tool has led to interest in vaccination as a potentially complementary strategy. Here, we describe the results of a trial in West Africa to evaluate a multivalent, subunit vaccine for onchocerciasis in the naturally evolved host-parasite relationship of Onchocerca ochengi in cattle. Naive calves, reared in fly-proof accommodation, were immunised with eight recombinant antigens of O. ochengi, administered separately with either Freund's adjuvant or alum. The selected antigens were orthologues of O. volvulus recombinant proteins that had previously been shown to confer protection against filarial larvae in rodent models and, in some cases, were recognised by serum antibodies from putatively immune humans. The vaccine was highly immunogenic, eliciting a mixed IgG isotype response. Four weeks after the final immunisation, vaccinated and adjuvant-treated control calves were exposed to natural parasite transmission by the blackfly vectors in an area of Cameroon hyperendemic for O. ochengi. After 22 months, all the control animals had patent infections (i.e., microfilaridermia), compared with only 58% of vaccinated cattle (P = 0.015). This study indicates that vaccination to prevent patent infection may be an achievable goal in onchocerciasis, reducing both the pathology and transmissibility of the infection. The cattle model has also demonstrated its utility for preclinical vaccine discovery, although much research will be required to achieve the requisite target product profile of a clinical candidate.

Mangold, S.J. & De Moor, F.C. 1996.
Further applications of the Albany Museums's National Collection of Freshwater Invertebrates.
SA waterbulletin, 22:16-19.
     States that macroinvertebrates are an essential functional component of freshwater ecosystems. Communities of this group of organisms are found in almost all aquatic biotopes which are able to support life. They are responsible for the recycling of nutrients as well as biologically purifying the water they live in. Mentions that the absence or proliferation of pollution tolerant species offers insight into the state of life of a particular aquatic environment. Mentions the features of the Albany Museums's National Collection ofFreshwater Invertebrates and illustrates with photographs and tables 30. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Matthews, G.A., Dobson, H.M., Nkot, P.B., Wiles, T.L. & Birchmore, M. 2009.
Preliminary examination of integrated vector management in a tropical rainforest area of Cameroon.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103:1098-1104.
     In the tropical rainforest area of Cameroon, people are affected by blackflies ( Simulium spp.) and mosquitoes ( Anopheles spp). Use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) has been promoted to protect vulnerable groups from mosquito bites, whereas historically indoor residual spraying (IRS) was the primary intervention. In a malaria-endemic area, a pilot study examined different mosquito control interventions applied to entire villages to assess their impact on vectors, malaria incidence and the quality of life of the communities. The Sanaga River near these villages was treated with insecticide to kill blackfly larvae. A medical survey of the six villages had shown that 20% of the population suffered from malaria, while 50% were infected with onchocerciasis and 5% with Loa loa. IRS+ITN using ICON CS (lambda-cyhalothrin capsule suspension formulation) or improved screening of houses combined with outdoor misting reduced the numbers of mosquitoes collected from exit traps compared to the other treatments. More sporozoites were detected in mosquitoes sampled in exit traps in the untreated village than in the treated villages. Malaria incidence several months after treatments was not significantly different from pre-treatment levels. Blackfly adult populations were reduced for several weeks following larvicide application but recovered when treatment was halted.

McCrae, A.W.R. 1969.

Ecology and speciation in African Blackflies (Diptera : Simuliidae).
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1:43-49.
     
The simuliid fauna of the Ethiopian region is notably isolated, only two of its species occurring elsewhere; the region has 124 described species, and others still undescribed. Simuliid larvae and pupae are adapted to attachment in moving water; adult females may disperse over considerable distances. This paper considers three examples of evident speciation in an ecological context: (1) speciation on afromontane ‘islands’; (2) the Simulium naevei group and the adaptive significance of the association between the early stages and freshwater crabs; (3) the S. damnosum complex, which includes the widespread vectors of human onchocerciasis. Maps show the distribution of species in these three groups.

McIntosh, B.M., Jupp, P.G., Dos Santos, I. & Barnard, B.J.H. 1980.
Vector studies on Rift Valley fever virus in South Africa.
South African Medical Journal, 58:127-132.
     Attempts to isolate Rift Valley fever virus from wild-caught haematophagous flies were made over an 8-year period in the coastal lowlands of Natal, South Africa, where the virus causes enzootic infection of cattle, and on infected farms in the inland plateau region of South Africa during epizootics in 1974-75. In Natal, the virus was not isolated from 71 561 mosquitoes, 10 514 Culicoides spp., or from fewer numbers of simuliid, phlebotomine and tabanids. On the plateau, there were 12 isolations from Culex theileri Theo. and 6 from 3 other mosquito species. There were no isolations from 12 368 Culicoides spp., and smaller numbers of simuliids, tabanids and Stomoxys. In laboratory transmission tests, the virus was transmitted by Culex theileri, C. univittatus Theo., C. quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes juppi McIntosh, A. lineatopennis (Ludl.), A. aegypti (L.) and Eretmapodites quinquevittatus Theo. A. caballus (Theo.) and C. rubinotus Theo. became infected but failed to transmit by bite. C. theileri was shown to be the most efficient vector. The tick Ornithodoros savignyi (Aud.) failed to become infected or to transmit virus by bite. It is concluded that C. theileri is the main epizootic vector among sheep and cattle on the plateau, where it probably causes some human infection. In the same region, A. juppi and A. lineatopennis are believed to act as vectors of lesser importance. Failure to isolate the virus from mosquitoes in enzootic foci in Natal is in accordance with previously observed low isolation rates from mosquitoes in such localities. It is concluded that there is no definitive evidence to indicate that mosquitoes are concerned in viral maintenance.

Meakins, R.H. 1996.
First account of the geographical distribution of Simuliidae(Diptera) in Lesotho.
African Entomology, 4:93-100.
     Reports the results of a study conducted on blackflies in Lesotho during which a population of Simulium nigritarse Coquillett was discovered. The population was studied throughout 1986 and 1987. The study incorporated the catchment of the LHWP as part of an EIA funded by the EU. Illustrates with tables and a graph 31. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

MOLLOY, D.P. 1990. Progress in the biological control of black flies with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, with emphasis on temperate climates, in Bacterial control of mosquitoes & black flies: biochemistry, genetics & applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus. edited by Anonymous New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press: 161-186

Monica Montagna, C., Ester Gauna, L., Pechen de D'Angelo, A. & Liliana Anguiano, O. 2012.
Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Argentina.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 107:458-465.
     Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold) and deltamethrin (162-fold) and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold) were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

Mustapha, M., Jarvis, W. & Post, R.J. 2004.
The Simuliidae (Diptera) of the Republic of Sao Tome and Principe, including the descriptions of a new species.
African invertebrates, 45:143-155.
     Identifies the Simulidae (Diptera) of the Republic of Sao Tome and Principe. Describes a new species 6. Record from search on: diptera simuliidae

Myburgh, E. 2002.
Factors that influence adult blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) survival along the lower Orange river, South Africa.

Myburgh, E. 2002. The influence of developmental temperature on the adult survival of Simulium chutteri (Diptera: Simuliidae). M.Sc.(Entomology ) thesis, University of Pretoria.

Myburgh, E. & Benz, G.W. 2000.
Blackflies in South Africa - their control and the fear of resistance; Kroyeria sp (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic copepod infesting gills of spinner sharks (Carcharhinus brevipinna (Muller & Henle, 1838)) in the Indian Ocean : Parasitological Society of Southern Africa : abstracts.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 71:135.
     Presents abstracts of papers presented at the 28th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa, held on 20-21 October 1999, in South Africa. Reports on a study conducted to investigate the use of larvaicides, temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis against blackflies. Describes Kroyeria from male and female specimens collected from gills of spinner sharks captured in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of South Africa 16. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Myburgh, E. & Nevill, E.M. 2010.
Review of blackfly (Diptera : Simuliidae) control in South Africa.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 70:307-316.
     The medical, veterinary and economic importance of blackflies in South Africa, and the historical development of blackfly control programmes in various South African rivers, are reviewed in this paper. In 1996 it was estimated that blackflies can cause more than R 88 million damages per annum along the middle and lower Orange River where Simulium chutteri is considered the main pest species. A clear link between the construction of dams and the spread of the blackfly problem was shown. Four phases characterize the development of blackfly control in South Africa: (1) during the 1960s blackflies in the Vaal River were controlled with DDT; (2), during the 1970s and into the 1980s blackflies were controlled using water-flow manipulation; (3) when used at strategic times, water-flow manipulation could be used to enhance the effect of natural predator populations; and (4) during the 1990s the organophosphate temephos and toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were tested for their efficacy against blackflies. The larvicides temephos and B. thuringiensis proved to be effective and are still used in several control programmes. The latest research focuses on the factors that influence adult blackfly survival and annoyance, as well as the development of methods that can be used to protect sheep from blackfly attacks.

Myburgh, E. & Nevill, E.M. 2003.
Review of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) control in South Africa.
Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research, 70:307-316.
     Reviews the advances made towards the control of blackflies in South Africa. Outlines the medical, veterinary and economic importance of the pest. Discusses the current and future blackfly research by ARC-OVI 11. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Myburgh, E. & Nevill, E.M. 2001.
The role of flowering plant species in the survival of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) along the lower Orange River, South Africa.
Koedoe, 44:63-70.
     Deals specifically with the role of flowering plants along the lower Orange River in influencing adult blackfly survival. Illustrates with tables, graphs and a map 15. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Odendaal, P. 2002.
Dynamics of the South African water scene over the last 21 years - a research perspective : 21 years.
Water sewage & effluent, 22:28,30-31.
     Reflects on the dynamics of the water scene over the past 21 years in South Africa. Highlights research on membrane technology, and water supply and sanitation for developing communities. Comments on agricultural water management through research directed at promoting the more effective use of irrigation water 12. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Okeibunor, J., Bump, J., Zoure, H.G.M., Seketeli, A., Godin, C. & Amazigo, U.V. 2012.
A model for evaluating the sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin in the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control.
International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 27:257-271.
     Onchocerciasis is controlled by mass treatment of at-risk populations with ivermectin. Ivermectin is delivered through community-directed treatment (CDTI) approach. A model has been developed to evaluate the sustainability of the approach and has been tested at 35 projects in 10 countries of the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). It incorporates quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, taking account of two factors identified as crucial to project sustainability. These are (i) the provision of project performance information to partners, and (ii) evidence-based support for project implementation. The model is designed to provide critical indicators of project performance of the model to implementing, coordinating, and funding partners. The model's participatory and flexible nature makes it culturally sensitive and usable by project management. This model is able to analyze the different levels involved in project implementation and arrive at a judgment for the whole project. It has inbuilt mechanisms for ensuring data reliability and validity. The model addresses the complex issue of sustainability with a cross-sectional design focusing on how and at which operational level of implementation to strengthen a CDTI project. The unique attributes and limitations of the model for evaluating the sustainability of projects were described. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Oku, E.E., Ukeh, D.A. & Dada, N.E. 2011.
Prevalence and seasonal distribution of daytime biting Diptera in Rhoko forest in Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria.
International Journal of Zoological Research, 7:279-285.
     Most rainforest areas in West and Central Africa are endemic to various biting haematophagous insects that transmit pathogens to man and animals. Field surveys were conducted during the raining and dry seasons of 2006 to investigate the prevalence, seasonal distribution and intensity of biting flies in Rhoko forest, Iko Esai, Akamkpa local government area, in Cross River State, Nigeria. The rain forest was divided into four locations based on human activity and geographical sub-locations. Data obtained showed the mean prevalence of four genera of biting flies namely; Simulium spp. (77%), Chrysops spp. (16%), Glossina spp. (5%) and Tabanus spp. (2%), respectively. A greater number of the flies were caught in locations where human activity was greatest. The result also showed that the mean number of flies caught during the wet season was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the dry season while the peak period of fly activity was between 11.00 am and 3.00 pm. Present results suggest that visitors should be informed about the entomological data of Rhoko forest as a management strategy between the vectors and potential hosts.

Okwa, O.O., Olusola, O.O.A. & Adelani, O.F. 2009.
Onchocerciasis among women in a rural Guinea savannah ecotype of Nigeria: social implications for control.
Tropical Medicine and Health, 37:135-140.
     Objectives: The objective of the current study was investigations on the social factors affecting the control of onchocerciasis among women in an endemic savannah community. Methods: A randomized sampling of households with women above 18 years of age was conducted in a mesoendemic rural community in the Guinea savannah woodland of northern Nigeria. Two hundred and eighty women were selected randomly from fifty households. Structured questionnaires were administered to the women to solicit their socio-demographic indices. Interviews were conducted as a second exploratory approach. Results: The investigation helped these women to change their erroneous beliefs about onchocerciasis. They now perceive the disease as a grave social problem demanding urgent attention. Thirty women (14.4%) were infected with onchocercal symptoms ranging from onchodermatitis, nodules and blindness. There was an increasing prevalence of onchocerciasis with advancing age i.e women 51 years of age and above were mainly affected 17 (51%). Health care utilization was low; only one person (3.33%) had ever sought medical help. Farming was the main occupational risk. There was little knowledge regarding onchocerciasis, 60% of the women did not know the cause and most of the others cited act of God 7 (23.3%) and a sign of aging 5 (16.6%). There was however impressive knowledge of black flies and their habits. All the women were illiterate Muslims. Most of the affected women were involved in the polygamous relationship (43.3%). Health education led all of them to believe they needed treatment. Fear of neglect by husbands was the main reason for their desire for seeking treatment. Conclusion: Targeted health education, making use of visual aids should be directed at illiterate women in endemic areas of onchocerciasis. The social implication of neglect by husbands was observed as a predisposing factor that can enable future compliance to ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis.

Oluwole, A.S., Ekpo, U.F., Mafiana, C.F., Adeofun, C.O. & Idowu, O.A. 2009.
Preliminary study on temporal variations in biting activity of Simulium damnosum s.l. in Abeokuta North LGA, Ogun State Nigeria.
Parasites and Vectors, 2:(16 November 2009)-(16 November 2009).
     Background: Simulum damnosum Theobald sensu lato ( s.l.) is the vector of the parasitic filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart which causes onchocerciasis. In order to understand the vector population dynamics, a preliminary 12 months entomological evaluation was carried out at Abeokuta, the Southwest Zone of Nigeria, an onchocerciasis endemic area, where vector control has not been previously initiated. S. damnosum s.l. flies were caught on human attractants between 700 to 1800 hours each day, for 4 days each month, from August 2007 to July 2008. The flies caught were classified as either forest-dwelling or savanna-dwelling groups based on the colour of certain morphological characters. Climatic data such as rainfall, humidity and temperature were also collected monthly during the period of survey. Results: A total of 1,139 flies were caught, 596 (52.33%) were forest-dwelling group while 543 (47.67%) were savanna-dwelling group of S. damnosum s.l. The highest percentage of forest-dwelling group was caught in the month of August 2007 (78.06%) and the least percentage of forest-dwelling groups was caught in November 2007 (8.14%). The highest percentage of savannah-dwelling group was caught in the month of November 2007 (91.86%) and the least percentage of savannah-dwelling group was caught in August 2007 (21.94%). There was no significant difference between the population of forest and savannah-dwelling groups of the fly when the means of the fly population were compared ( P=0.830). Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between monthly fly population with monthly average rainfall ( r=0.550, n=12, P=0.033), but no significant relationship with monthly average temperature ( r=0.291, n=12, P=0.179). There was also a significant relationship between monthly fly population and monthly average relative humidity ( r=0.783, n=12 P=0.001). There was no significant correlation between the population of forest-dwelling group of S. damnosum s.l. and monthly average rainfall ( r=0.466, n=12, P=0.064) and monthly average temperature ( r=0.375, n=12, P=0.115) but there was significant correlation with monthly average relative humidity ( r=0.69, n=12, P=0.006). There was significant correlation between savannah-dwelling group and monthly average rainfall ( r=0.547, n=12, P=0.033), and monthly average relative humidity ( r=0.504, n=12, P=0.047) but there was no significant correlation with monthly average temperature ( r=0.142, n=12, P=0.329). Conclusion: The results from this study showed that both the forest and the savannah dwelling groups of S. damnosum s.l. were caught biting in the study area. This could have implications on the transmission and epidemiology of human onchocerciasis if not monitored.

Ortlepp, R.J. 1937.
The Biology of Onchocereiasis in Man and Animals.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association, 8:1-6.
     A review article on the subject of onchocerciasis in which the most important facts in connexion with the disease are given. The work of BLACKLOCK in Sierra Leone on the life-history of the larvae of O. volvulus of man in the gnat Simulium damnosum is described and the life-history of O. reticulata of the horse in the midge Culicoides nubeculosus. In South Africa the nodules of O. gibsoni are present in the brisket but the infection may spread to the head, neck and shoulders, thorax, flanks and hind limbs. Some hundreds of nodules may be found in one animal. In Australia it is unusual to find more than 50 nodules in any one animal.-E. M. R.

Palmer, C., O'Keeffe, J. & Palmer, A. 1993.
Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the middle and lower reaches of the Buffalo River, eastern Cape, South Africa. I. Functional morphology and behaviour.
Freshwater Biology, 29:441-453.

Palmer, C., O'Keeffe, J., Palmer, A., Dunne, T. & Radloff, S. 1993.
Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the middle and lower reaches of the Buffalo River, eastern Cape, South Africa. II. Dietary variability.
Freshwater Biology, 29:455-462.

Palmer, C., Palmer, A., O'Keeffe, J. & Palmer, R. 1994.
Macroinvertebrate community structure and altitudinal changes in the upper reaches of a warm temperate southern African river.
Freshwater Biology, 32:337-347.

Palmer, C.G., Maart, B., Palmer, A.R. & O'Keeffe, J.H. 1996.
An assessment of macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups as water quality indicators in the Buffalo River, eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Hydrobiologia, 318:153-164.
     The potential for using functional feeding groups (FFGs) as indicators of water quality conditions in rivers was investigated, using the Buffalo River, South Africa, as a specific example. Multivariate classification and ordination techniques were used to investigate species and FFG distributions in relation to a number of physico-chemical variables at 16 sites from the headwaters to the estuary of the Buffalo River. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) of species composition ranked most of the sites sequentially down the river, irrespective of water quality conditions. Ordination of FFGs from a set of riffle samples collected in mid-late summer showed only weak relationships between FFG distribution and water quality changes, except where variables changed sequentially down the river (e.g. pH and temperature). Individual species responses to water quality gradients were examined for 9 riffle-dwelling species representing diverse FFGs (Simulium damnosum, S. nigritarse, S. adersi, Adenophlebia auriculata, Choroterpes elegans, Burnupia sp., Afronurus harrisoni, a species of Caenidae and Neurocaenis reticulata). Following correspondence analysis of a matrix of environmental variables and species frequencies, some species showed strong associations with defined ranges of some variables. In particular, Adenophlebia auriculata from the headwater sampling site, was associated with low pH and low temperature. S. damnosum occurred under conditions of high turbidity, while Afronurus harrisoni was found under high concentrations of potassium, ammonium and nitrite ions. It is concluded that although there was a distinct headwaters fauna in the Buffalo River, and sequential downstream changes in species composition, most FFGs (apart from shredders) were represented down the whole length of the river. FFG classifications are therefore unlikely to provide useful indications of water quality conditions in the Buffalo River. Using a categorical approach to classifying water quality variables, and by applying correspondence analysis to the resulting matrix, 9 species were recognised which could be used to define water quality. These indicator species can be used to define tolerance ranges of the fauna for water quality conditions in different parts of the Buffalo river.

Palmer, C.G., O'Keeffe, J.H. & Palmer, A.R. 1991.
Are macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Buffalo River, southern Africa, associated with particular biotopes?
Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 10:349-357.
     Stream biotopes (habitat types) have commonly been defined using subjective recognition of hydraulic and substrate conditions. The relationship between groups of macroinvertebrates and subjectively defined biotopes was examined at 3 sites in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Buffalo River, South Africa. Biotopes which were recognised included riffles, leaf packs in riffles, and a waterfall (erosional biotopes) and stony backwaters, marginal vegetation and sediments (depositional biotopes). Over 100 taxa were identified from the 3 sites, and a hierarchical classification of 138 samples was prepared using TWINSPAN. The first division distinguished between the invertebrate assemblages of the upper reaches and those of the middle/lower reaches. In the upper reaches, the waterfall was differentiated from all the other stream biotopes. In addition, seasonal changes in assemblage composition were recognised. Divisions in the middle/lower reaches differentiated between biotopes. Of the 27 most common taxa (which included Simulium adersi and S. dentulosum), 13 occurred in a single biotope in >50% of the samples in which they had been collected. Clearest species-biotope associations were riffle-dwelling mayflies and caddisflies, and stone-dwelling planaria and ancylid gastropods. Invertebrate assemblages were not always associated with subjectively identified biotopes, particularly in the narrow headwaters, where different biotopes tended to be smaller and less distinct. However, associations of assemblages with biotopes were found in the middle/lower reaches. Stratified sampling regimes can be useful tools in stream research if the scale at which biotopes are recognised is clearly defined.

Palmer, R. 1995.
Bye bye blackfly : agrochemicals.
Effective farming, 10:390.
     Reports on research into the biological control of blackfly along the Orange River, using aerial applications of Bacillus thuringiensis, by the Directorate of Resource Conservation, the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute and the Water Research Commission. Illustrates with photographs 33. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R. & O'Keeffe, J. 1995.
Distribution and abundance of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to impoundments in the Buffalo River, eastern Cape, South Africa.
Freshwater Biology, 33:109-118.
     The abundance of blackfly species along the length (140 km) of the multiply impounded Buffalo River, eastern Cape, South Africa, was studied between 1986-88. 23 species of blackflies were recorded, most of which (95%) were usually found 5-10 km from the source. Impoundments favoured 5 lower-reach (pest) blackfly species at the expense of 2 upper-reach (non-pest) species. Impoundments have therefore shifted the distribution of blackfly species "upstream", and have increased the distribution of pest blackflies. The smallest impoundment, situated in the Upper Foothill Stony Run Zone, had the greatest effect on blackfly distribution. There was no typical filter-feeding guild below impoundments. Possible reasons for this included the discharge of toxic algae from impoundments, the lack of compensatory releases, the sudden drying of impoundment tailwaters and the paucity of natural lakes in southern Africa which precludes a pre-adapted "outlet" fauna.

Palmer, R.W. 1998.
An overview of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) control in the Orange River, South Africa.
32:99-110.
     A programme to control outbreaks of Simulium chutteri along the Orange River, South Africa, using helicopter applications of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and temephos, was started in 1991. An overview of the programme is presented, with emphasis on organisation and logistics. For most of the time, the programme was successful in reducing the abundance of adult simuliids to within acceptable levels. The success of the programme hinged on accuracy of applications, continued evaluation of larval and adult numbers, long-term monitoring of river conditions, the use of appropriate larvicides, and good communication between interested and affected parties.

Palmer, R.W. 1997.
Principles of integrated control of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in South Africa.
307.
     The main pest species of blackfly encountered during this study was Simulium chutteri, although, in decreasing order of abundance, S. damnosum s.l., S. adersi, S. mcmahoni, S. ruficorne and S. nigritarse s.l. were also found. The main aims of this study were: (1) to integrate the use of larvicides, flow manipulation and predators in the control of blackflies along the middle Orange River, so as to minimise larvicide applications; (2) to define the 'annoyance level' at which larviciding is necessary (i.e. what constitutes an outbreak); (3) to determine the relationship between river discharge and habitat availability for blackflies in the middle Orange River; and (4) to determine the probabilities of blackfly outbreaks under different environmental and biological conditions in the middle Orange River. Further aims were: (5) to examine the requirements for integrated control of pest blackflies along the Great Fish, Sundays, Gamtoos and Eerste Rivers; and (6) to provide a practical manual for controlling blackflies in South Africa, including details of how to measure the river flow, apply larvicides, assess larvicidal efficacy, and measure various environmental variables important for blackfly populations and their control. Following the introduction, the sections are entitled: study area; literature sources; blackfly species and abundance; blackfly life history; environmental conditions; the use of larvicides to control pest blackflies; blackfly control in the Orange River; blackfly control in the Great Fish River; blackfly control in the Sundays River; blackfly control in the Gamtoos River; blackfly control in the Eerste River; protection against blackfly attack; environmental implications of blackfly control; and, computer model for blackfly control. There are also 20 appendices, some with up to 13 subdivisions.

Palmer, R.W. 1996.
Biological and chemical control of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Orange River, : report.
SA waterbulletin, 22:24-27.
     Highlights a WRC report which summarizes the results of a study conducted to develop an effective and environmentally safe programme for the control of blackflies along the Orange River. Copies of the report are available free of charge from the Water Research Commission. Illustrates with photographs 28. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. 1996.
Invertebrates in the Orange River, with emphasis on conservation and management.
Southern African Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 22:3-51.
     Provides the first detailed account of invertebrates in the Orange River downstream of the Lesotho border. Also provides a reference against which future changes in the river may be compared, and identifies components of particular importance in the conservation and management of the Orange River. Illustrates with a map, graphs and tables 26. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. 1994.
A rapid method of estimating the abundance of immature blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae).
Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research, 61:117-126.
     A ten-point visual method of estimating the abundance of immature blackflies in the field is proposed and tested. The method is based on the comparison of larvae and pupae found on natural substrates, with ten iagrammatically prepared abundance classes. When estimates were based on the abundance of blackflies within a 4 x 4 cm area of highest density, there were no significant differences between estimates based on the ten- point visual method and those based on actual counts (P > 0.05). The time taken to assess the abundance of larval blackflies on 30 substrates was about 15 min, depending on substrate accessibility. Personal bias was assessed independently by four people, and was negligible when estimates were based on the highest densities within a 4 x 4 cm quadrat. The method tends to overlook very small larvae, and is not recommended for estimating overall population densities. However, the method provides a reliable, practical and rapid index of blackfly abundance suitable for use in blackfly control programmes. 34. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. 1993.
Short-term impacts of formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis de Barjac and the organophosphate temephos, used in blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) control, on rheophilic benthic macroinvertebrates in the middle Orange River, South Africa.
Southern African Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 2:14-33.
     Assesses the impacts of larvicides used in the control of blackflies on macroinvertebrates in the stones-in-current biotope during 8 field trials in the middle Orange River, South Africa. Mortality was evaluated either by direct counting of invertebrates on stones before and after application, or by ranking invertebrates on a 4-point relative abundance scale before and after application. Illustrates with tables and a graph 9. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. 1991.
Descriptions of the larvae of seven species of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Southern Africa, and a regional checklist of the family.
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 54:197-219.
     Larvae of Simulium (Freemanellum) hessei Gibbins, 1941, S. (Menomphalus) letabum de Meillon, 1935, S. (Nevermannia) rutherfoordi de Meillon, 1937, S. (Nevermannia) katangae Fain, 1951, S. (Pomeroyellum) bequaerti Gibbins, 1936, S. (Pomeroyellum) harrisoni Freeman and de Meillon, 1953 and S. (Pomeroyellum) merops de Meillon, 1950 are described for the first time from specimens collected in Southern Africa. A checklist of Southern African blackflies is provided 38. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. & Craig, D.A. 2000.
An ecological classification of primary labral fans of filter-feeding black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae.
Canadian journal of zoology, 78:199-218.
     A conceptual model that uses labral-fan structure to predict the distribution of black fly species within a catchment is proposed. The model is based on water flow, seston availability, and the structure of the primary labral fans of mature black fly larvae from southern Africa. The model predicts that black fly larvae found in fast-flowing (>1.0 m/s) seston-rich (>50 mg/l) water will tend to have strong fans with a porous ray structure, whereas larvae found in slow-flowing (0.5 m/s) seston-poor (10 mg/l) water will tend to have weak fans with a complex structure and larvae found in water with moderate water velocities and moderate seston levels will tend to have a standard fan structure. The model was tested against black flies from other parts of the world, particularly Polynesia, and provides a useful framework for predicting the distribution of black fly species within a catchment. Exceptions to the model were found among phoretic species. The model should predict changes in black fly species in areas where anthropogenic changes to watersheds are occurring.

Palmer, R.W. & De Moor, F.C. 1998.
Annotated records of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) distribution in southern Africa.
African Entomology, 6:223-251.
     Presents the first atlas of blackfly distribution in southern Africa. The regional and within-catchment distributions of blackflies are examined relative to life-history strategies and environmental preferences of the aquatic stages. Provides a reference against which future changes in blackfly distribution may be measured, and provides a framework for predicting the consequences of environmental change on blackfly distribution and abundance. Illustrates with maps, graphs and tables 24. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W., Edwardes, M. & Nevill, E.M. 1996.
Control of pest blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) along the Orange River, South Africa: 1990-1995.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 63:289-304.
     The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) and temephos in controlling Simulium chutteri along the middle Orange River, South Africa, in 1990-95, was assessed. Larvicides were applied by helicopter to rapids and riffles between Hopetown and Onseepkans, a river distance of 807 km. Larvicidal efficacy was based on the change in larval abundance at selected sites before and after each treatment. The success of the control programme was assessed independently by local farmers, who ranked adult blackfly annoyance on a 4-point scale. Before treatment, blackfly annoyance showed consistent peaks in spring, and sometimes in autumn, and levels were unacceptably high for between 17 and 36 weeks of the year. After treatment started, blackfly annoyance levels were reduced significantly. The number of annual treatments necessary to reduce blackfly annoyance to acceptable levels was highly variable (3-13), and depended on river conditions, as well as the efficacy and timing of each treatment. During low-flow conditions (50 m³/s), applications became increasingly difficult in braided sections of the river, and dosage calculations were inaccurate because of local abstraction and return flows. Both larvicides worked well in winter (water temperature 11-13°C). Control of the spring outbreak can be planned well in advance, with the first treatment starting in mid July. A flexible protocol is required to control outbreaks at other times of the year. The authors recommended the use of B.t.i. for most applications, with increased dosages during algal blooms (>1500 cells/ml). The use of temephos in the Orange River should be considered only during algal blooms or when flows exceed 300 m³/s. It is concluded that helicopter application of larvicides is an effective method of controlling pest blackflies along the middle Orange River.

Palmer, R.W., Edwardes, M. & Nevill, E.M. 1996.
Downstream carry of larvicides used in the control of pest black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Orange River, South Africa.
Journal of Vector Ecology, 21:37-47.
     The downstream carry of larvicides used in the control of Simulium chutteri was assessed during 55 field trials conducted between August 1990 and June 1994 in the middle reaches of the Orange River, South Africa. Larvicides were applied in the vicinity of Upington by means of a boat, a helicopter, and from bridges. Larvicidal carry was determined by assessing the abundance of blackfly larvae on 10-30 substrates (stones or trailing vegetation) at various sites before and after each application. Downstream carry was highly variable, but the main factors which affected carry were flow, the presence of pools and vegetation, algal blooms, high concentrations of suspended solids, dosage and formulation. At median flows (100 m³/s), Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (as Teknar HP-D and Vectobac 12AS) was usually effective (>80% larval mortality) for 6-9 km, and up to 20 km, downstream of the point of application. By contrast, temephos (as Abate 200-EC) was usually effective for 15-50 km. Carry was further following multiple-site (control) applications compared to single-site (experimental) applications. It was concluded that considerable savings could be made by spacing treatment intervals as far apart as possible.

Palmer, R.W., Edwardes, M. & Nevill, E.M. 1996.
Timing of larvicide treatments for the control of pest black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a semi-arid environment in South Africa.
Journal of Vector Ecology, 21:48-59.
     Seasonal changes in the abundance of larvae, the rate of larval development, and the survival adults of Simulium chutteri were used to determine the timing of larvicide treatments (with temephos (Abate 200EC) and/or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Teknar HP-D and Vectobac 12AS)) in the middle and lower reaches of the Orange River, South Africa, based on studies conducted in 1991-94. Larval abundance was highest in late winter (July-August), low in late summer (January-February), and dropped sharply during cyanobacterial blooms in autumn (March-April). The time taken for the first cohort of larvae to pupate, following larvicide treatment, ranged from 7 days in midsummer (water temperature 25-29°C) to 37 days in midwinter (10-16°C). Adult abundance was consistently high in spring (September and October) and sometimes in autumn (April and May). Abundance dropped sharply in summer when evaporation exceeded 12 mm/day. The estimated number of generations per year was 11-13, although adequate control during normal (non-flood) years was obtained with 6 "spring" and 3 "autumn" larvicide applications. It is recommended that applications to prevent a spring outbreak should start towards the end of July, when most of the population is in the larval stage, and continue into late October. Applications to prevent an autumn outbreak, when necessary, should start in mid-March and continue to the end of April. Although water temperatures provided reasonably accurate information for the correct timing of treatments, single-site applications underestimated the appropriate timing of subsequent large-scale control treatments. Treatment intervals should be based on water temperature according to the function y = exp(0.065t - 4.13), where y = larval development rate (in days-1), and t = water temperature (in °C).

Palmer, R.W. & Nevill, E.M. 1996.
Blackfly control in South Africa.
ProAgri, 65:26-28.
     Discusses the attempts of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Water Research Commission and Department of Agriculture, to control blackflies in South Africa. The co-operation and participation of selected farmers is essential for successful control 29. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. & Palmer, A.R. 1995.
Impacts of repeated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var Israelensis de Barjac and Temephos, used in blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) control, on macroinvertebrates in the middle Orange River, South Africa.
Southern African Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 3:35-55.
     The impacts of five consecutive treatments of blackfly larvicides on macroinvertebrates in the middle Orange River were assessed. Invertebrates were sampled following five repeated larvicide applications so that subtle, which were not detected by a previous short-term study, would be amplified and detected. Illustrates with a map, tables and graphs 32. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Palmer, R.W. & Rivers-Moore, N. 2008.
Evaluation of larvicides in developing management guidelines for long-term control of pest blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) along the Orange River, South Africa.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 75:299-314.
     In 2000 and 2001 Orange River levels were higher than normal: associated serious outbreaks of blackfly had a substantial detrimental impact on the local economy. The poor control was attributed to the suspected development of larval resistance to temephos. A long-term solution to blackfly control, through the identification of a suitable replacement to temephos for use during high flow conditions, was proposed. This study, however, failed to identify or register a suitable larvicide for use during high flow conditions. Although permethrin was highly effective against blackfly larvae, it was rejected because of its detrimental impacts on non-target fauna. Various formulations of locally produced dry Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) were tested, but these were ineffective against blackflies. The study also confirmed that resistance to temephos has developed among Simulium chutteri in the middle and lower Orange River. The feasibility of "reversing" the resistance to temephos through the use of the Synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was investigated, but the results were not favourable. Furthermore, PBO was highly toxic to blackflies and non-target organisms, and was not recommended for further testing. This means that B.t.i. currently remains the only symptomatic measure of treatment currently applied. Although resistance to B.t.i. has not been reported for blackflies elsewhere in South Africa, there is a need to remain vigilant and to implement an operational strategy that minimizes the risks of resistance developing.

Pennycott, T., Wood, A., MacIntyre, C., McIntyre, D. & Patterson, T. 2006.
Deaths in aviary birds associated with protozoal megaloschizonts.
Veterinary Record, 159:499-500.
     This correspondence describes additional cases of deaths associated with large, multi-chambered tissue schizonts (megaloschizonts) in parakeets in the west of Scotland in August 2002 and August 2006, and in a canary in the north of Scotland in August 2003. The first incident occurred on the island of Bute in the west of Scotland. Two adult baraband parakeets Polytelis swainsonii and their three offspring, aged three to four months, housed in a large outdoor aviary, died in July and August 2002. Gross postmortem examination revealed many small, raised and red nodules on the surface of the heart and several haemorrhagic areas in the muscle of the gizzard, and histopathology demonstrated many megaloschizonts in the cardiac and gizzard muscle. In August 2006, a Bourke parakeet Neophema bourkii aged three to four months, from an unrelated collection developed diarrhoea, lost weight and was euthanized. The collection, housed in a large outdoor aviary, was approximately 3 km from the first location. Postmortem examination revealed blotchy haemorrhages on the heart, moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen, and haemorrhagic foci in the pectoral muscles. Histopathology subsequently demonstrated multiple megaloschizonts in the skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and gizzard muscle. The third incident involved a newly fledged Fife canary Serinus canarius aged six weeks. The bird had not been feeding and had lost weight before death. The only significant gross abnormality found at postmortem was an accumulation of ascitic fluid, and no abnormalities were found on histological examination of the brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney or heart. The muscle of the gizzard, however, contained several unilocular or multilocular megaloschizonts similar to those observed in the baraband and Bourke parakeets, with areas of haemorrhage and infiltration by predominantly mononuclear inflammation. The megaloschizonts seen in these cases were similar in location and histological appearance to those previously described in parakeets in the UK, bleeding heart doves in South Africa and pied currawongs in Australia. However, there is no agreement as to the identity of the organism producing the megaloschizonts. Consideration of possible insect vectors or mammalian hosts may also be helpful in identifying the protozoa producing the megaloschizonts. In the Scottish cases described, Culicoides midges were very common at all three sites and blackflies were also common at the two sites in the west, both of which were very close to the shore.

Pont, A.C. & Werner, D. 2003.
A new species of Xenomyia Malloch, 1921 (Diptera: Muscidae) from South Africa, a probable natural antagonist of blackflies(Diptera: Simuliidae).
African invertebrates, 44:147-155.
     Describes a new species of the genus Xenomyia Malloch, Xenomyia osculata, from the Orange River, Northern Cape. Includes the first published illustrations of the aedeagus and ovipositor of a species of Xenomyia 10. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Post, R.J., Cheke, R.A., Boakye, D.A., Wilson, M.D., Osei-Atweneboana, M.Y., Tetteh-Kumah, A., Lamberton, P.H.L., Crainey, J.L., Yameogo, L. & Basanez, M.G. 2013.
Stability and change in the distribution of cytospecies of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in southern Ghana from 1971 to 2011.
Parasites and Vectors, 6:(13 July 2013)-(13 July 2013).
     Background: Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental change (e.g. deforestation), with potential disease consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in southern Ghana and report changes observed with reference to historical data collated from 1971 to 2005 and new identifications made between 2006 and 2011. Methods/Results: Larvae were collected from riverine breeding sites, fixed in Carnoy's solution and chromosome preparations made. Cytotaxonomic identifications from 1,232 samples (including 49 new samples) were analysed. We report long-term stability in cytospecies distribution in the rivers Afram, Akrum, Pawnpawn and Pru. For the rivers Oda, Ofin and Tano we describe (for the first time) patterns of distribution. We could not detect cytospecies composition changes in the upper Pra, and the lower Pra seems to have been stable. The elimination of the Djodji form of S. sanctipauli in the Volta Region seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S. yahense. There has been a recent increase in the occurrence of savannah cytospecies in the river Asukawkaw, and this might be related to continuing deforestation. Conclusions: Cytospecies' distributions have not been stable from 1971 to 2011. Although there are no obvious causes for the temporary appearance and subsequent disappearance of cytospecies in a particular location, a major influence has been vector control and migration patterns, probably explaining observed changes on the Black Volta and lower Volta rivers. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savannah cytospecies in southern Ghana (1975-1997). Our data had little power to support (or refute) suggestions of a continuing increase, except in the Asukawkaw river basin.

Post, R.J., Onyenwe, E., Somiari, S.A.E., Mafuyai, H.B., Crainey, J.L. & Ubachukwu, P.O. 2011.
A guide to the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Nigeria, with a cytotaxonomic key for the identification of the sibling species.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 105:277-297.
     Although approximately 40% of all the people blinded by Onchocerca volvulus are Nigerians, almost nothing was known about the various cytospecies of the blackfly vectors present in Nigeria until 1981. The activation of the Nigerian National Onchocerciasis Control Programme in 1986 (and that programme's initiation of mass distributions of ivermectin in 1991) provided a significant stimulus to understand the biology of the Nigerian vectors but the exploration of any possible differences between the cytospecies has been hampered by a lack of accessible taxonomic information. This review attempts to satisfy that need. There are nine different cytoforms reliably recorded from Nigeria (Simulium damnosum s.s. Nile form, S. damnosum s.s. Volta form, S. sirbanum Sirba form, S. sirbanum Sudanense form, S. soubrense Beffa form, S. squamosum A, S. squamosum B, S. squamosum C and S. yahense typical form), and three more are known from surrounding countries and might be reasonably expected to occur in Nigeria. All of these cytospecies are presumed to be vectors, although there have been almost no identifications of the vectors of O. volvulus in Nigeria. The biogeographical distribution of the cytoforms is broadly similar to that known in other parts of West Africa (although many of the cytoforms remain insufficiently studied). The physico-chemical hydrology of the Nigerian breeding sites of the cytospecies does not, however, correspond to that seen elsewhere in West Africa, and it is not clear whether this might be related to differences in the cytoforms. An illustrated cytotaxonomic key is presented to facilitate and encourage future studies.

Post, R.J., Cheke, R.A., Boakye, D.A., Wilson, M.D., Osei-Atweneboana, M.Y., Tetteh-Kumah, A., Lamberton, P.H.L., Crainey, J.L., Yameogo, L. & Basanez, M. 2013.
Stability and change in the distribution of cytospecies of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in southern Ghana from 1971 to 2011.
Parasites & Vectors, 6:205.
     Background: Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental change (e. g. deforestation), with potential disease consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in southern Ghana and report changes observed with reference to historical data collated from 1971 to 2005 and new identifications made between 2006 and 2011. Methods/Results: Larvae were collected from riverine breeding sites, fixed in Carnoy's solution and chromosome preparations made. Cytotaxonomic identifications from 1,232 samples (including 49 new samples) were analysed. We report long-term stability in cytospecies distribution in the rivers Afram, Akrum, Pawnpawn and Pru. For the rivers Oda, Ofin and Tano we describe (for the first time) patterns of distribution. We could not detect cytospecies composition changes in the upper Pra, and the lower Pra seems to have been stable. The elimination of the Djodji form of S. sanctipauli in the Volta Region seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S. yahense. There has been a recent increase in the occurrence of savannah cytospecies in the river Asukawkaw, and this might be related to continuing deforestation. Conclusions: Cytospecies' distributions have not been stable from 1971 to 2011. Although there are no obvious causes for the temporary appearance and subsequent disappearance of cytospecies in a particular location, a major influence has been vector control and migration patterns, probably explaining observed changes on the Black Volta and lower Volta rivers. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savannah cytospecies in southern Ghana (1975-1997). Our data had little power to support (or refute) suggestions of a continuing increase, except in the Asukawkaw river basin.

Reynolds, L. 1996.
River water quality? : ask the animals.
Toktokkie, 17:12-14.
     Relates biologists are using a new way to check river water quality and pollution: the South African Scoring System (SASS) where small and sensitive animals that live there give an indication about the state of the river. Also includes a section showing how to score rivers advising to sample the river in three places. Advises on action which one can take when a local river has a polluted score 27. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Rivers-Moore, N., Bangay, S. & Palmer, R.W. 2008.
Optimisation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Vectobac®) applications for the blackfly control programme on the Orange River, South Africa.
Water SA, 34:193-198.
     The Orange River, South Africa's largest river, is a critical water resource for the country. In spite of the clear economic benefits of regulating river flows through a series of impoundments, one of the significant undesirable ecological consequences of this regulation has been the regular outbreaks of the pest blackfly species Simulium chutteri and S. damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae). The current control programme, carried out by the South African National Department of Agriculture, uses regular applications, by helicopter, of the target-specific bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. While cost-benefit analyses show significant benefits to the control programme, benefits could potentially be further increased through applying smaller volumes of larvicide in an optimised manner, which incorporates upstream residual amounts of pesticide through downstream carry. Using an optimisation technique applied in the West African Onchocerciasis Control Programme, to a 136 km stretch of the Orange River which includes 31 blackfly breeding sites, we demonstrate that 28.5% less larvicide could be used to potentially achieve the same control of blackfly. This translates into potential annual savings of between R540 000 and R1 800 000. A comparison of larvicide volumes estimated using traditional vs. optimised approaches at different discharges, illustrates that the savings on optimisation decline linearly with increasing flow volumes. Larvicide applications at the lowest discharge considered (40 m3.s-1) showed the greatest benefits from optimisations, with benefits remaining but decreasing to a theoretical 30% up to median flows of 100 m3.s-1. Given that almost 70% of flows in July are less than 100 m3.s-1, we suggest that an optimised approach is appropriate for the Orange River Blackfly Control Programme, particularly for flow volumes of less than 100 m3.s-1. We recommend that trials be undertaken over two reaches of the Orange River, one using the traditional approach, and another using the optimised approach, to test the efficacy of using optimised volumes of B.t.i.

Rivers-Moore, N., De Moor, F.C., Birkholz, S.A. & Palmer, R.W. 2006.
Estimation of preferred water flow parameters for four species of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) in small clear streams in South Africa.
African Journal of Aquatic Science, 31:261-269.
     Blackfly larvae typically occur in fast-flowing riffle sections of rivers, with different blackfly species showing preferences for different hydraulic conditions. Very little quantitative data exist on hydraulic conditions linked to the blackfly species occurring in South African streams. Stones-in-current biotopes (i.e. fast riffle flows over cobbles) were sampled from four sites in three small clear streams in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Mean water column velocities at each sampled stone were measured using a mini current meter, while flow velocities closer to the boundary layer where blackfly larvae occurred were estimated using indirect techniques (standard hemispheres and aerating tablets). Standard hemispheres were also used to calculate more complex hydraulic parameters such as Froude and Reynolds numbers. Four species of Simuliid were sampled in sufficient numbers to show trends in flow velocity preferences. Simulium impukane and S. rutherfoordi both occurred at their highest densities at velocities of 0.3 m s-1, while S. merops preferred velocities of 0.7 m s-1. Simulium nigritarse SL attained the highest densities of all the blackfly species sampled, and its relative abundances were greatest at velocities of 0.8-0.9 m s-1. Within the streams surveyed, all blackfly species occurred in subcritical-turbulent flows - based on a classification using Froude and Reynolds numbers - although two of the species were also found in high densities in supercritical flows where these existed at the sites. Local hydraulics within the stones-in-current biotope are complex, but in the absence of fine-scale equipment for measuring micro-velocities, standard hemispheres are a useful, cost-effective technique for the initial quantification of hydraulic parameters in small, clear streams. Such an approach facilitates further understanding of links between hydraulics and aquatic invertebrates in South African streams.

Rivers-Moore, N., De Moor, F.C., Morris, C. & O'Keeffe, J. 2007.
Effect of flow variability modification and hydraulics on invertebrate communities in the Great Fish River (Eastern Cape Province, South Africa), with particular reference to critical hydraulic thresholds limiting larval densities of Simulium chutteri Lewis (Diptera, Simuliidae).
River Research and Applications, 23:201-222.
     Flow patterns in the Great Fish River in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa have changed from being seasonal, with predictable no-flow periods during winter, to perennial following the completion of an inter-basin transfer scheme in 1977 to provide a regular supply of irrigation water. Simulium chutteri (Diptera: Simuliidae) consequently became a problem species of pestilential proportions, due to increased flow volumes and current velocities favouring this species. In this study, aquatic invertebrates were sampled from the stones-in-current biotope with a range of current velocities at three sites on the Great Fish River, with a particular focus on pool/rapid areas favouring S. chutteri. The main aim of this paper was to determine whether critical hydraulic thresholds, including current velocity, could be derived for this species. Knowledge of the hydraulic preferences of S. chutteri is a prerequisite for any integrated control programme which combines larvicidal control with flow manipulation. S. chutteri was found to favour the rapids biotope with current velocities in excess of 90 cms-1, with preferences for higher current velocities increasing with life cycle stage. Additional hydraulic variables, at the scale measured in this study, did not correlate with larval densities. There is potential for more effective long-term control of problem populations of larval blackfly in the Great Fish River through further research on the potential for using constructed in-stream vanes to reduce current velocities in rapids of the river at critical periods of the year (July-October), based on flow duration/current velocity relationships.

Rivers-Moore, N., Hughes, D.A. & De Moor, F.C. 2008.
A model to predict outbreak periods of the pest blackfly Simulium chutteri Lewis (Simuliidae, Diptera) in the Great Fish River, Eastern Cape province, South Africa.
River Research and Applications, 24:132-147.
     Elevated, more constant flows characterize the current flow regime of the Great Fish River (Eastern Cape province, South Africa) following the completion of an interbasin transfer scheme (IBT) in 1977, where prior to this the winter months were often characterized by zero flows. Changes in aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, and in particular outbreaks of the pest blackfly Simulium chutteri Lewis (Diptera: Simuliidae) have been documented in response to these altered flows. Integrated control measures of pest blackfly have been advocated based on flow reductions during the winter months. In this study, a site-specific discharge threshold of 2 m3 s-1 was identified as a flow reduction target based on the amount of hydraulic habitat available to S. chutteri larvae within a particular rapid. Hydrological analyses showed that flow conditions have created ideal blackfly larval habitat in this rapid, with prolonged uninterrupted periods (>3 months) exceeding this threshold. A model was developed to predict probabilities and severities of blackfly outbreaks, based on flow periods and water temperatures, both of which determine the success and duration respectively of the aquatic phase of S. chutteri. July was identified as the critical month for flow restriction to 2 m3 s-1 for a period of 38 days, in order to reduce the winter populations of S. chutteri in the Great Fish River at the study site and avoid the typical spring outbreaks of blackfly.

Rivers-Moore, N.A., Dallas, H.F. & Ross-Gillespie, V. 2013.
Life History does Matter in Assessing Potential Ecological Impacts of Thermal Changes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.
River Research and Applications, 29:1100-1109.
     Thermal alteration is associated with ecological change in freshwater systems. Global climate change is likely to amplify thermal stresses on aquatic systems. We used cumulative daily heat units to examine potential impacts of temperature changes on selected aquatic organisms using scenario analyses. We selected two species of aquatic macroinvertebrates to test our hypotheses of thermal effects on life history pattern, viz. a univoltine stenothermic ephemeropteran species of conservation importance, and a multivoltine dipteran pest species. A combination of spreadsheet probability and logistic regression models was used to model probabilities of hatching and breeding success, plus population sizes and generation numbers per month, under current and projected 2 degrees C warmer water temperature scenarios. We propose that cold-adapted Gondwanaland relic species are likely to become increasingly vulnerable and range limited, whereas multivoltine pest species are likely to become more abundant under scenarios of increased water temperatures. We propose management options that include maintaining river connectivity and dam re-operation as potential mitigation measures. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rivers-Moore, N.A. & De Moor, F.C. 2008.
Impact of winter flow fregulation on pest-level populations of blackfly (Diptera : Simuliidae) and non-target faunal communities in a South African river.
African journal of aquatic science, 33:125-134.
     Quantifies the effects of flow reduction on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities downstream of an impoundment and to assess the value of winter flow reduction to control pest larval blackfly in the Great Fish River. 4. Record from search on: (kw: (blackfly)) or kw: (blackflies)

Rodriguez-Perez, M.A., Unnasch, T.R. & Real-Najarro, O. 2012.
Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.
Advances in Parasitology, 77:175-226.
     Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of onchocerciasis as a result of successful control. As a result of these advances, a strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis was developed, based upon mass distribution of ivermectin to afflicted communities for periods lasting long enough to ensure that the parasite population was placed on the road to local elimination. This strategy has been applied for the past decade to the foci in Latin America by a programme overseen by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA). The efforts spearheaded by OEPA have been very successful, eliminating ocular disease caused by O. volvulus, and eliminating and interrupting transmission of the parasite in 8 of the 13 foci in the region. As onchocerciasis approaches elimination in Latin America, several questions still need to be addressed. These include defining an acceptable upper limit for transmission in areas in which transmission is thought to have been suppressed (e.g. what is the maximum value for the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for transmission rates in areas where transmission is no longer detectable), how to develop strategies for conducting surveillance for recrudescence of infection in areas in which transmission is thought to be interrupted and how to address the problem in areas where the mass distribution of ivermectin seems to be unable to completely eliminate the infection.

Rodriguez-Perez, M.A., Adeleke, M.A., Burkett-Cadena, N.D., Garza-Hernandez, J.A., Reyes-Villanueva, F., Cupp, E.W., Toe, L., Salinas-Carmona, M.C., Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.D., Katholi, C.R. & Unnasch, T.R. 2013.
Development of a Novel Trap for the Collection of Black Flies of the Simulium ochraceum Complex.
Plos One, 8:e76814.
     Background: Human landing collections are currently the standard method for collecting onchocerciasis vectors in Africa and Latin America. As part of the efforts to develop a trap to replace human landing collections for the monitoring and surveillance of onchocerciasis transmission, comprehensive evaluations of several trap types were conducted to assess their ability to collect Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, one of the principal vectors of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin America. Methodology/Principal Findings: Diverse trap designs with numerous modifications and bait variations were evaluated for their abilities to collect S. Ochraceum s.l. females. These traps targeted mostly host seeking flies. A novel trap dubbed the "Esperanza window trap" showed particular promise over other designs. When baited with CO2 and BG-lure (a synthetic blend of human odor components) a pair of Esperanza window traps collected numbers of S. Ochraceum s.l. females similar to those collected by a team of vector collectors. Conclusions/Significance: The Esperanza window trap, when baited with chemical lures and CO2 can be used to collect epidemiologically significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum s.l., potentially serving as a replacement for human landing collections for evaluation of the transmission of O. volvulus.

Rydzanicz, K. & Lonc, E. 2010.
[Ecological safety of mosquitocidal biocides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis].
Wiadomosci parazytologiczne, 56:305-14.
     Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) has been developed into many products for the biological control of dipteran larvae, including mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simuliidae), and midges (Chironomidae) in various parts of the World. Bti appears to pose significantly less of a risk than other chemical pesticides used for mosquito control and eradication programs. Bioproducts based on Bti are highly selective with short environmental persistence, and thus they have very little potential to cause damage to populations of non-target organisms. So far, no example of an unexpected pathogenic organism being developed in the field as well as no examples of resistance to Bti both laboratory and field populations of mosquitoes have been documented. There are some indications that large declines in insect biomass can occur after long-term use of Bti in freshwater wetlands. However, no evidence for permanent damage to ecosystem function has been found. Organisms that utilized insects for food, adapted to the declines and either switched to other food sources or migrate (birds) outside of the treated zones to acquire insects. Even though over 40 tons of Bti have been applied in West Africa alone, no indications of human health or non-target effects have been reported.

Sam-Wobo, S.O., Adeleke, M.A., Jayeola, O.A., Adeyi, A.O., Oluwole, A.S., Adewale, B., Mafiana, C.M., Bissan, Y., Toe, L., Yameogo, L., Mutabaruka, E. & Amazigo, U.V. 2013.
Seasonal fluctuations of Simulium damnosum complex and Onchocerca microfilarial evaluation in river systems, South-west Nigeria.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 33:2-7.
     Seasonal fluctuations of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex and the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus Bickel in blackflies caught in river systems bordering the Nigeria-Benin border were assessed for their direct impact on the epidemiology of onchocerciasis in South-western Nigeria. Entomological evaluation and heteroduplex assay (HDA) techniques were performed on flies caught in the eight capture points in the Ogun and Yewa river systems between October and December 2007, July and December 2008 and May and December 2009. A total of 5789 blackflies were caught on human bait, of which 727 (12.6%) flies were captured in 2007, 1723 (29.8%) in 2008 and 3339 (57.6%) in 2009. The majority of flies caught during the study were forest flies representing 90.3% of the total catch while savanna flies constituted 9.7%. Proportions of parous to nulliparous flies were low in all the catching points (31.1 and 68.9%, respectively). Of the 5789 flies dissected, 11 (0.2%) flies were infected with Onchocerca parasites with nine of the infected flies having L3 head parasites. The HDA results revealed that the Beffa form of S. soubrense was the dominant cytospecies present (87.1%) in all the capture sites when compared with 12.9% of S. damnosum s.s. The low level of infectivity of flies may therefore indicate a low transmission level of onchocerciasis in the communities along the Ogun and Yewa river systems. However, there is a need for constant surveillance on species composition and fly infectivity in the river systems along the borders of Nigeria-Benin Republic.

Sam-Wobo, S.O., Adeleke, M.A., Mafiana, C.F. & Surakat, O.H. 2011.
Comparative Repellent Activities of Some Plant Extracts Against Simulium damnosum Complex.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 11:1201-1204.
     The root and leaf extracts of four plants, Occimum gratissimum, Azadirachta indica, Pterocarpus santalinoides, and Pistia hyptis, were studied for repellent activities against the adults of Simulium damnosum sensu lato. The leaves and roots were extracted with 95% ethanol and the stocks were diluted with paraffin. The repellent activities of the extracts were investigated using human baits along the banks of River Oyan and River Ogun in southwestern Nigeria. The results showed that the root extract of O. grattissium and leaf extract of P. hyptis had highest repellent potentials with 78% and 78.1% protection against S. damnosum sensu lato, respectively, whereas the root and leaf of P. santalinoides recorded the least. Although there were significant differences in the percentage of protection of the extracts of the plants (p0.05). The study concludes that there exist some repellent efficacies in the extracts of the plants, most importantly O. grattissimum and P. hyptis. The plant extracts can further be developed in the prevention of man-vector contact in onchocerciasis endemic communities.

Schulz, R., Thiere, G. & Dabrowski, J.M. 2002.
A combined microcosm and field approach to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of azinphosmethyl to stream communities.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21:2172-2178.
     We evaluated the potential effects of the organophosphate insecticide azinphosmethyl [azinphos-methyl] (AZP) in a combined microcosm and field approach. The upper regions of the Lourens River, South Africa, are free of contamination (control site), whereas the subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area receive transient insecticide pollution (e.g., 0.82 µg/l AZP, 344 µg/kg chlorpyrifos) following spray drift and runoff (contaminated site). Stones taken from the control site were transferred to outdoor microcosms (1.5×0.2×0.2 m), providing 12 core species and approximately 350 individuals per microcosm. Microcosms were contaminated for 1 h with AZP (control, 0.2, 1, 5, and 20 µg/l; three replicates each), and acute effects on survival were evaluated 6 days following exposure. The two strongest treatments (measured concentrations: 19.2±1.0 and 4.9±0.3 µg/l, respectively) resulted in a significantly (analysis of variance) reduced invertebrate density, attributed mainly to various insect taxa, such as Demoreptus sp., Castanophlebia sp., Simuliidae, and Chironomidae. In contrast, Aeshna sp., Dugesia sp., Ceratopogonidae, and Cheumatopsyche sp. were unaffected. In parallel, we conducted a quantitative macroinvertebrate survey at the control site and the contaminated site of the Lourens River after the seasonal pesticide application period. The two sites contained a similar number of species but differed considerably in their species composition and abundances. Five of the eight species that were affected by AZP in the microcosm study occurred in the field at significantly lower densities at the contaminated than at the control site or were absent at the contaminated site. All of the four species that were unaffected in the microcosm occurred at significantly higher densities at the contaminated field site. Only 3 of the 12 species reacted differently in the microcosm and the field study. We conclude that microcosm studies employing a field-relevant design could be linked successfully to field studies and our results suggest that transient pesticide contamination affects the aquatic communities of the Lourens River.

South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply. External parasites.
26-27.
     The investigations on external parasites of livestock reported from South Africa include those on Culicoides spp. (C. imicola having been shown to be the major vector of bluetongue and horse sickness), ticks as vectors of Cowdria ruminantium (it having been shown that Amblyomma marmoreum can be the vector in tortoises), the control of flies that transmit Parafilaria bovicola (together with tick control) [in cattle], the use of ear tags against Simulium on sheep and the control of Simulium by treating rivers with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

South African Institute for Medical Research. 1978.
Annual report 1977.
115.
     This report from the South African Institute of Medical Research includes a section(pp. 53-55) from the Department of Medical Entomology, in which it is reported that the spiders Loxosceles spinulosa Purcell and Cheiracanthium lawrencei Roewer are under suspicion of causing necrotic bites in man, and that a new technique for the identification of closely related scorpion species, involving the electrophoresis of venom samples obtained by electrical stimulation, was tested in 1977. Work on other Diptera of medical importance, including tabanids, ceratopogonids, simuliids and phlebotomines, is also briefly mentioned.

Stannus, H.S. 1913.
Pellagra in Nyasaland. Second Paper.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 7:32-56.
     The author read a paper before the Society in December 1911 on pellagra in Nyasaland, and pointed out that with the exception of Egypt and Robben Island the disease had not been before described as occurring in Africa. The present paper consists of a series of detailed observations on cases occurring in the Zornba district and especially in the prison at Zomba. The author says that in his first paper he was only able to state that SIMULIIDAE were present in Zomba. In January 1913, with the assistance of Mr. E. Ballard, Entomologist to the Agricultural Department, the streams of the Zomba township were investigated and every stream was found to harbour Simulium larvae and pupae. The numbers were roughly proportional to the swiftness of the stream, the maximum being found in the months of January and February. Simulium larvae were also found in practically every stream in the neighbourhood, and the author believes that larvae would be found in all streams in Nyasaland which, for a sufficiently long period in the year, carried enough water and fulfilled the other well-known conditions necessary for the development of these flies. He thinks that there is some possible support for the theory that Simulium may be the carrier of the pellagra virus; at all events there are no facts in Nyasaland militating against that theory, though at the same time all the data collected equally support the theory of defective nutrition as the cause of the disease. [The species of Simulium obtained by Dr. Stamms and Mr. Ballard have recently been identified by M. Roubaud as S. latipes. Mg., S. pusillum, Fries, and S. nanum, Fries, all of which occur also in Europe.-ED.

Traore, M.O., Sarr, M.D., Badji, A., Bissan, Y., Diawara, L., Doumbia, K., Goita, S.F., Konate, L., Mounkoro, K., Seck, A.F., Toe, L., Toure, S. & Remme, J.H.F. 2012.
Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal.
Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6:e1825.
     Background: Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Conclusion/Significance: The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa.

Traore, S., Wilson, M.D., Sima, A., Barro, T., Diallo, A., Ake, A., Coulibaly, S., Cheke, R.A., Meyer, R.R.F., Mas, J., McCall, P.J., Post, R.J., Zoure, H., Noma, M., Yameogo, L., Seketeli, A.V. & Amazigo, U.V. 2009.
The elimination of the onchocerciasis vector from the island of Bioko as a result of larviciding by the WHO African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control.
Acta Tropica, 111:211-218.
     The island of Bioko is part of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea and is the only island in the World to have endemic onchocerciasis. The disease is hyperendemic and shows a forest-type epidemiology with low levels of blindness and high levels of skin disease, and the whole population of 68,000 is estimated to be at risk. Control of onchocerciasis began in 1990 using ivermectin and this yielded significant clinical benefits but transmission was not interrupted. Feasibility and preparatory studies carried out between 1995 and 2002 confirmed the probable isolation of the vector on the island, the high vectorial efficiency of the Bioko form of Simulium yahense, the seasonality of river flow, blackfly breeding and biting densities, and the distribution of the vector breeding sites. It was proposed that larviciding should be carried out from January to April, when most of the island's rivers were dry or too low to support Simulium damnosum s.l., and that most rivers would not need to be treated above 500 m altitude because they were too small to support the breeding of S. damnosum s.l. Larviciding (with temephos) would need to be carried out by helicopter (because of problems of access by land), supplemented by ground-based delivery. Insecticide susceptibility trials showed that the Bioko form was highly susceptible to temephos, and insecticide carry was tested in the rivers by assessing the length of river in which S. damnosum s.l. larvae were killed below a temephos dosing point. Regular fly catching points were established in 1999 to provide pre-control biting densities, and to act as monitoring points for control efforts. An environmental impact assessment concluded that the proposed control programme could be expected to do little damage, and a large-scale larviciding trial using ground-based applications of temephos (Abate 20EC) throughout the northern (accessible) part of the island was carried out for five weeks from 12 February 2001. Following this, a first attempt to eliminate the vectors was conducted using helicopter and ground-based applications of temephos from February to May 2003, but this was not successful because some vector populations persisted and subsequently spread throughout the island. A second attempt from January to May 2005 aimed to treat all flowing watercourses and greatly increased the number of treatment points. This led to the successful elimination of the vector. The last biting S. damnosum s.l. was caught in March 2005 and none have been found since then for more than 3 years. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tsacas, L. & Disney, R.H.L. 1974.
Two new African species of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) whose larvae feed on Simulium larvae (Dipt., Simuliidae).
Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, 25:360-377.
     Drosophila cogani sp. n. and D. simulivora sp. n. are described from the males, females, larvae and pupae collected in the Kumba region of West Cameroon in 1970. The larvae are aquatic. The only species of Drosophila with aquatic larvae hitherto known was D. gibbinsi Aubertin, which is closely related to the two new species and which is known from Uganda and South Africa. Its description is amplified, and the simulivora species group is erected to include the three species. The larvae of the two new species were found to feed mainly on first- and second-instar larvae of Simulium, which are abundant in the fast-water microhabitats favoured by these species of Drosophila. Larvae and pupae are found on trailing aerial roots of trees and other substrates favoured by S. damnosum Theo. They were first obtained on palm fronds placed in rivers to collect Simulium larvae. Pupae of both were attacked by a Diapriid of the genus Trichopria. One adult Diapriid emerged from each parasitised Drosophila pupa. Both the new species were collected between 14th March and 3rd August 1970, and D. cogani was also found in Liberia in October 1956. The distribution and evolution of the simulivora group and problems of niche separation are briefly discussed, and the possible part that D. cogani and D. simulivora may play in the biological control of S. damnosum, one of the principal species of Simulium at the sites of collection, is also considered.

UK, Colonial Medical Research Committee Tropical Medicine Research Board. 1961.
Colonial Research 1960-1961. Colonial Medical Research Committee Tropical Medicine Research Board. Sixteenth Annual Report 1960-61.
353.

Van Emden, F. Museidae : Muscinae and Stomoxydinae.
Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-35, 2:49-89.
     These systematic papers deal mainly with insects taken in L ganda and Kenya in the course of the Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-35. The Simuliids taken in the Namwamba Valley of Ruwenzori, Uganda, during December 1934, which are dealt with in some detail, were Simulium kauntzeum Gibbins, S. bisnovem Gibbins [cf. R.A.E., B 26 157], S. debegene De Meillon, S. lepidum De Meillon, and S. dentulosum Roub. Other species found in this region are S. duodecimum Gibbins, S. damnosum Theo., and S. cervicormitum Pomeroy, which were taken in the course of the Expedition, and S. taylori Gibbins [loc. cit.], which was taken in 1931. The only Anopheline found among the mosquitos of the bamboo zones on the Birunga Mountains and Ruwenzori was Anopheles garnhami Edw., which was taken at an altitude of 8, 000 ft. in the Birunga Mountains; this species was also taken in Kenya on Mount Kinangop at about the same altitude and on Mount Elgon at about 11, 000 ft. The Anophelines taken on the foothills of Ruwenzori were A. implexus Theo., A. gambiae Giles, A. marshalli var. gibbinsi Evans, and A. demeilloni Evans. The paper on Ceratopogonids, which includes descriptions of new species from Uganda and Kenya, has an appendix by B. De Meillon in which he describes two new species of Ceratopogon from Zululand and erects a new subgenus for them. The paper on Muscids also includes the results of a study of collections from other parts of the Ethiopian Region, and that on fleas deals with 14 species from Uganda and Kenya and includes fuller descriptions of 4 described as new in a recent paper [26 40].

Verbeek, W.A. 1976.
Annual report for the period 1 July, 1974 to 30 June, 1975.
vi + 229.
     This report on agricultural services in South Africa in 1974-75 includes a section on field husbandry (pp. 42-62), in which the topics dealt with include the incidence and control of arthropod pests of maize, tobacco, cotton, and pastures of lucerne and clover; a section on horticulture (pp. 63-96) in which the topics dealt with include the incidence and control of arthropod pests of apple, peach, grape-vine, Citrus, avocado, papaya, granadilla, coffee, sweet potato and protea (Proteaceae); and a section on additional services (pp. 168-200) in which the topics dealt with include quarantine measures applied for the control of arthropods, work done (including field surveys) in connection with the national collection of insects (in which Scyphophorus interstitialis Gylh. is recorded for the first time in South Africa, a severe outbreak having occurred on Agave sisalina), insect control and research (in which outbreaks and their control are described), and beneficial insects (including the biological control of about 9 species of weeds and several arthropods).ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT:The section on veterinary services in this report of the South African Department of Agricultural Technical Services for 1974-75 includes information on arthropod pests of livestock (pp. 141-144). Among those mentioned are ticks of various kinds, which were generally present in large numbers throughout the country except in Natal because of unusually high rainfall, and simuliids and mosquitoes, which were also plentiful for the same reason, the latter being responsible for large stock losses both directly and indirectly through disease transmission. The predacious Muscid Lispe barbipes Stein effected good control of mosquito larvae. Species of Musca were found infected with Parafilaria bovicola, which was prevalent in cattle. Reference is also made to genetic studies on Boophilus decoloratus (Koch) and B. microplus (Can.).

Webby, R. & Kalmakoff, J. 1998.
Sequence comparison of the major capsid protein gene from 18 diverse iridoviruses.
Archives of Virology, 143:1949-1966.
     Insect iridoviruses (IV) have been found on all continents of the world and in a broad range of insect hosts. The host range for a single strain can cross several insect orders. This along with a paucity of molecular information on all but a few members has led to confusion in the taxonomy and classification of these viruses and in the identification of potentially novel isolates. To address this problem, consensus PCR primers were designed to amplify and sequence a 500 bp region of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene. PCR products were amplified from 18 IVs belonging to the genus Iridovirus. No product was observed for the chloriridovirus IV3. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial MCP gene sequence showed that the iridovirus genus can be divided into 3 groups. These results support previous studies where a range of molecular techniques were used. Group I contained PjIV and IV31, group II contained IV6 (CIV), IV21 and IV28, and group III contained IV1 (TIV), IV2 (SIV), IV9 (WIV), IV10, IV16, (CzIV), IV18, IV22, IV23 (BbIV), IV24, IV29, IV30, AgIV and an undescribed weevil IV. There was no correlation of relatedness with host of isolation, but there was some correlation with geographic region of isolation. Sequence analysis also raised issues concerning the purity of some virus stocks and supported the view that some isolates should be considered as variants of one virus species.

Werner, D., Mann, D.J. & Pont, A.C. 2006.
Notes on predation by Scathophagidae (Diptera) on Simuliidae (Diptera).
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 142:143-150.
     Two new records of adult Scathophagidae preying on adult Simuliidae are described, one of Hydromyza livens (Fabricius) feeding on larvae and adults of Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer) in Brandenburg state, Germany, and the other of Scathophaga soror Wiedemann feeding on adult Simulium nigritarse Coquillett in Western Cape province, South Africa. A note is given on the status of the species Scathophaga soror.

Wilson, M.D., Osei-Atweneboana, M., Boakye, D.A., Osei-Akoto, I., Obuobi, E., Wiafe, C. & Kiszewski, A. 2013.
Efficacy of DEET and non-DEET-based insect repellents against bites of Simulium damnosum vectors of onchocerciasis.
Medical and veterinary entomology, 27:226-231.
     Coping strategies including smoke screens are used against nuisance bites of Simulium damnosum Theobald (Diptera:Simuliidae) in onchocerciasis endemic communities. To find more effective alternatives, the efficacy of commercially available N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) products with active concentrations of 9.5, 13, 25, 50 and 98.1100% and NO MAS,' (active component: para-menthane-3,8-diol and lemon grass oil) were tested at Bui-Agblekame, Ghana. A Latin square study design was implemented using eight groups of two vector collectors each, who used repellents (treatment), mineral oil or nothing each day until the end of the study. Flies were caught and their numbers each hour recorded using the standard methods for onchocerciasis transmission studies. T-tests were used to compare the mean duration of protection and a one-way analysis of variance controlling for catchers and repellents was performed. Tukey's test was used to compare protection by repellents and mineral oil. The highest percentage protection was 80.8% by NO MAS and the least 42.5% by the 13% DEET product. The period of absolute protection was 5 h by NO MAS and 1 h by 50% DEET product. No significant increase in protection was offered beyond 25% active DEET products and no significance was observed in terms of catcher x repellent effect (F = 1.731, d.f. = 48, P = 0.209).

Zarroug, I.M.A., Elaagip, A.H., Mohamed, H.A., Mubarak, W.A., Osman, K.H., Deran, T.C.M., Aziz, N. & Nugud, A.D. 2013.
Plants associated with aquatic stages of onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato in AbuHamed and Galabat Foci in Sudan.
Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 5:83-86.
     Onchocerciasis vector, Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnsoum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae), breeds near rapids and cataracts in running water rich in oxygen and are usually found attached to water plants, trailing roots and branches, stones and rocks. This study was conducted to identify the plant species associated with the aquatic stages of S. damnosum s. l. vectors in two foci: AbuHamed in northern Sudan and Galabat in eastern Sudan during 2007 to 2009. All collected aquatic stages were identified as S. damnosum s. l. The plants collected are identified as follows: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. Family: Poaceae, Polygonum glabrum Willd. Family: Polygonaceae and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Family: Poaceae in AbuHamed focus, and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers Family: Poaceae, Kanahia laniflora (Forssk.) R.Br. Family: Asclepiadaceae and Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. Family: Poaceae in Galabat focus. This is the first documentation and identification of plants associated with breeding of S. damnosum s. l. in Sudan.

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